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Terms in this set (75)
_______, ________, and _______ are examples are carbohydrates?
sugars, starch, and cellulose
_________ carbs include sugars found in fruits and veggies?
________ carbs are found in whole grain, starchy veggies, high in fiber?
The functions of carbs are_____, ______, and change into ________ converted to ______?
nutrients, energy storage for brain and body, glucose, energy
A __________ is a polyhydroxyaldehyde or ""ketone?
A ___________ is a carbohydrate that can't be hydrolyzed to a simpler carbohydrate?
The formula for monosaccharides is ______ and n varies from ______?
_________ is a monosaccharide containing an aldehyde?
_____ is a monosaccharide containing a ketone group?
monosaccharides are classified by their # of_______ atoms?
___________ are the simplest carbohydrate monosaccharide?
__________ contains a stereo center and exists as a pair of enantiomers?
__________ are bonds written in a two dimensional represention of tetrahedral stereocenters?
The _________ is the last chiral carbon of the chain(second to last carbon)?
The alcohol group attached to this carbon is what reacts with the carbonyl during ______ of a sugar?
_________ are stereoisomers that are mirror images(D and L)
___________ are stereoisomers that are not mirror images?
___________ of sugars takes place due to interaction between functional groups on distant carbons (C1-C5) to make hemiacetals?
Cyclization using C2-C5 results in cyclic ______ formation, derived from ketone?
The carbonyl carbon is the new chiral center and becomes the __________ carbon?
_________ have -OH and C=O in the same molecule and exist almost entirely as ___ and ____ membered cyclic hemiacetals?
monosaccharides, 5, 6
A ___________ is the new steriocenter resulting from the cyclic hemiacetal formation?
________ are carbohydrates that differ in configuration only at their ______ carbons?
________ projections are 5 and 6 membered hemiacetals represented as planar pentagons or hexagons?
Most commonly the _______ carbon is on the right and the hemiacetal oxygen to the left of it?
_____ means that the -OH on thee anomeric carbon is cis to the -CH2OH?
______ mean that the -OH on the anomeric carbon is trans to the -CH2OH?
________-(_______) is a six membered hemiacetal ring?
_______-(_______) is a five membered hemiacetal ring?
Five membered rings are so close to being planar that _______ projections are adequate to represent furanoses?
A _____________ ________ is one that reduces an oxidizing agent?
If the anomeric carbons are involved in glycosidic linkage, there will be a ________ pollens reagent test?
If the another anomeric carbon is not bonded and is free, there will be a _____ pollens reagent test?
A ____________ end has no potential for a free C=O bond bc already attached?
A _____ end can open to have a free C=O bond at anomeric carbon?
The _____ group of a monosaccharide can be reduced to a ____ group by a variety of reducing agents ?
_____________ are particularly important for metabolism of sugars to provide ______?
phosphoric esters, provide energy
Phosphoric esters are formed by the transfer of a phosphate group from _____?
_______ is a carbohydrate in which the -OH of the anomeric carbon is replaced by -OR?
__________ is the bond from the anomeric carbon to the -OR group?
Glycosidic bonds to -OR instead of -OH are the basis for formation of _________?
Acetal glycosidic bond
Glycosidic linkage( bond between anomeric carbon and any -OH on another sugar to form alpha or beta?
Sugars can undergo _______ and _____ reactions as well as for esters?
Glycosidic linkages can form _______,_______, and ________?
monosaccharides(monomer), oligosaccharides(oligomers), and polysaccharides(polymer),
_______ is a table sugar(from sugar cane) made by one unit of D-glucose and D-fructose joined by alpha (1,2) glycosidic bond?
_______ is milk sugar made of D-galactose and D-glucose joined by a beta(1,4) glycosidic bond?
_____ is malt sugar made from TWO of D-glucose joined by an alpha (1, 4 bond); also formed by hydrolysis of starch?
Lactose intolerant people have insufficient levels of _______, an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of lactose into glucose and galactose, in digestive system?
______ is a condition where people are unable to fully digest sugar(lactose) in milk?
________ is a disaccharide consisting of two glucose units beta(1-4)?
The carbohydrate ______ is a microbial breakdown product from plant material(cellulose). This is not produced by the body nor is it ________ by the body?
In ________ disease, celloboise is used as an indicated carb for malabsorption.(they break down when not supposed to)?
Lactose is found in _____ and ________, obtained from starch?
A _______ is when many monosaccharides are linked together?
_______ is the major structural component in plants; consists of beta ______ glycosidic bonds?
___________ are energy storage polymers of glucose in muscle, NOT in brain; they are linked by linear alpha _______ glycosidic bonds and branched alpha _____ glycosidic bonds??
glycogen, 1,4, 1,6
______ is used for energy storage in plants?
_______ is a continuous unbranched chain of ______ ________ glycosidic bonds?
amylose, alpha 1,4
________ is a highly branched polymer consisting of ______ _____ glycosidic bonds and branches of _____ ______ glycosidic bonds?
amylopectin, alpha 1,4, alpha 1,6
______ is in saliva and catalyses hydrolysis(break with H2O) of alpha 1,4 bonds?
A ________ enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of an alpha 1,6 bond?
________ is the major structural component of exoskeleton(insects and shellfish); contains a ___ ______ glycosidic bonds?
chitin, beta 1,4
_________ _______ _____ are made of beta 1,4 and ____ causes immune and inflammatory response in humans?
bacterial cell walls, LPS
_____________ are polysaccharides based on a repeating disaccharide where one monomer is an amino sugar and the other has a negative charge due to sulfate or carboxyl group?
______ is a natural anticoagulant(blood thinner)?
_________ _____ is a component of the vitreous humor of the eye and fluid in joints?
_________ sulfate and ______ sulfate are components of connective tissue?
chondroitin and keratan
__________ contain carbohydrate units covalently bonded to a polypeptide chain?(sugar attached to a protein)
________ are glycoproteins?
______ _____ _______ (_____ system) were among the first antigenic determinants discovered?
blood group substances (ABO)
______ can be found in specific bonding arrangements for some proteins?
Glycoproteins play a role in ________ ________?
___________ are recognition sites on cells?
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