electrical charge across the cell membrane of a neuron
minimum level of stimulus needed to activate a neuron
reversal of charges across the cell membrane of a neuron as an impulse passes
connects brain to the spinal chord; controls information going in and out of the brain; controls involuntary actions
recieves messages from sensory receptors and relays to proper part of cerebrum
controls reflexes; carries signals from brain to the rest of the body
sensory division of peripheral nervous system
transmits impulses from sensory neurons to CNS
motor division of the peripheral nervous system
transmits impulses from CNS to muscles and glands
somatic nervous system
part of motor division; regulates voluntary activities
autonomic nervous system
part of motor division; regulates involuntary activities
the electrical discharge that travels along a nerve fiber
chemical "messengers" of the endocrine system that are released into the blood
class of hormones that cannot pass through the cell membrane; less likely to be stored in the body
class of hormones that can pass through the cell membrane; can be stored in the body
local hormones that do not enter the bloodstream
Process that amplifies a small change (Reinforce change)
a response that opposes the original stimulus
Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of some nerve cells
Carry messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs
type of neurons that usually has long dendrites and short axons, and carry messages from the body to the CNS
usually has long axons and short dendrites, and transmits messages from the central nervous system to the body
found only in the CNS where they connect neuron to neuron and gives quick responses
process of impulses jumping from node to node
sodium potassium pump
maintains unequal concentration by actively transporting ions against concentration gradients
makes membrane more permeable to sodium and increases synaptic transmission of impulses in brain (eg. caffeine, cocaine, mescaline, nicotine)
inhibit an impulse at synapse (eg. anesthetics, botulin, curare, serotonin)
affects role of serotonin and alter perception (eg. LSD, marijuana)
they relieve pain by interfering with transmission of pain impulses to cerebral cortex.
controls intelligence, reasoning, learning, memory
regulates homeostasis, links nervous system to endocrine system
controls muscles, posture, balance, causes continuous state of muscle contraction
involved with regulation of heartbeat, breathing, vasoconstriction, reflex
takes impulses to and from CNS (in PNS)
takes impulses to and away from spinal chord
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