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Pathophysiology chapter 20
Terms in this set (45)
Cellular aging occurs naturally over time and results in
altered structure of the cell, decreased function, and, in time, cell death.
Rapid rates of mitosis associated with tissue trauma or other stimuli may do what?
increase the risk of errors occurring in the chromosomes, cell enzymes, or cell components.
cellular growth that is no longer responding to normal body controls.
A neoplasm or tumor
Which types of cells have rapid rates of mitosis?
Epithelial cells, white blood cells, hair cells
Excessive growth of cells deprives the other cells of what?
Many neoplasms are unable to function as normal tissue cells because they consist of?
Atypical or immature cells
The suffix oma alone indicates what?
A benign tumor
carcinoma is the term used for malignancy in what type of tissue?
Sarcoma is the term used for malignancy in what type of tissue?
Oncology is the study of?
malignant tumors, otherwise known as cancer
Benign tumors usually consist of?
differentiated cells that reproduce at a higher than normal rate
The benign tumor is often __________ and expands but does not spread
How does tissue damage result from benign tumors?
from compression of adjacent structures such as blood vessels.
malignant tumors are usually made up of?
undifferentiated, nonfunctional cells that do not appear organized.
Malignant cells tend to _________ more rapidly than normal and often show abnormal mitotic figures.
Malignant cells have lost _________ ____________ with each other, and reproduction is not inhibited in the presence of other similar cells.
Spread into the surrounding tissue and may easily metastasize or break away to spread to other organs
A tumor manifests as an enlarging space-occupying mass composed of more primitive or ___________ cells. Normal organization, growth inhibition, contact controls, and cell-cell communication are absent.
What processes are absent in a tumor?
Normal organization, growth inhibition, contact controls, and cell-cell communication
What is altered on the cancer cell?
Cell membranes and surface antigens
The expanding tumor mass does what to near by structures?
Compresses nearby blood vessels leading to necrosis and an area of inflammation around the tumor. It also increases pressure on surrounding structures
Malignant cells do not do what to each other, allowing them to spread rather easily
Adhere to each other
The suffix oma alone indicates what kind of tumor?
A benign tumor
Tumor cells often secrete enzymes such as __________which break down protein or cells, adding to the destruction and facilitating the tumor's spread into adjacent tissue. Inflammation and the loss of normal cells lead to a progressive reduction in organ function.
As a tumor mass enlarges, what happens to the inner cells?
the inner cells are frequently deprived of blood and nutrients and die.
Some cancer cells secrete growth factors, which stimulate what?
What is angiogenesis
The formation of new blood vessels
What does in situ refer to?
neoplastic cells in a preinvasive stage of cancer that may persist for months or years.
Grading of tumors is based on what?
the degree of differentiation of the malignant cells
A grade 1 tumor has what?
well differentiated cells similar to the original cells
a grade IV tumor is
undifferentiated with cells varying in size and shape (anaplasia); this type of tumor is considered highly malignant and likely to progress quickly.
Warning signs of cancer
Unusual bleeding or discharge anywhere in the body.
2. Change in bowel or bladder habits
3. A change in a wart or mole
4. A sore that does not heal
5. Unexplained weight loss.
6. Anemia or low hemoglobin, and persistent fatigue.
7. Persistent cough or hoarseness without reason.
8. A solid lump, often painless, in the breast or testes or anywhere
Is pain an early sign of cancer?
No, it usually occurs when the tumor is advanced
Systemic effects of cancer
Anemia (decreased hemoglobin)
Tests for cancer
What does invasion refer to?
refers to local spread, in which the tumor cells grow into adjacent tissue and destroy normal cells
What does metastasis refer to?
spread to distant sites by blood or lymphatic channels.
Common secondary sites for tumors
Lungs and liver
What does seeding refer to?
refers to the spread of cancer cells in body fluids or along membranes, usually in body cavities.
Staging systems are based on?
Size of the primary tumor (T) • Extent of involvement of regional lymph nodes (N) • Spread (invasion or metastasis) of the tumor (M)
What is Carcinogenesis?
the process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.
What causes a malignant cell?
A combination of factors or repeated exposure to a single risk factor leads to changes that activate or change gene expression, leading to transformation of the normal cell into a malignant cell.
The four stages in carcinogenesis
1. Initiating factors or procarcinogens. Causes the first irreversible changes in the cell DNA.
2. Exposure to promoters later causes further changes in DNA, resulting in less differentiation and an increased rate of mitosis. This process may lead to the tumor
3. Continued exposure and changes in DNA result in a malignant tumor that is capable of growth and invasion of local tissue
4. Changes in the regulation of growth result in cells that are capable of detaching from the tumor and spreading to distant sites (metastasis).
Tumors that metastasize readily and exhibit cells that reproduce quickly are described as
What kind of genes in the body can inhibit neoplastic growth
Cancer suppressor genes
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