Terms in this set (100)
Buoyancy (Archimede's Principle)
Force a fluid exerts on a submerged object. F(buoy) = (density of fluid)
(Volume of fluid displaced)
gravity = (density of fluid)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological -> Safety -> Love/Belonging -> Esteem -> Self actualization
Citric Acid Cycle Intermediates
Pyruvate -> Citrate -> Isocitrate -> alpha ketogluterate -> succinyl-CoA -> succinate -> Fumarate -> Malate -> Oxaloacetate
(Please, Can I Keep Selling Seashells For Money, Officer)
Resistors (Series / Parallel)
Series: V = V1 + V2 + Vn
Resistors: R = R1 + R2 + Rn
Current: I = I1 = I2 = In
Parallel: V = V1 = V2 = V2 = Vn
Resistors: 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/Rn
Current: I = I1 + I2 + In
Theoretical Approach: Functionalism
Structure / function of each part of society.
Function: Beneficial consequence of people's actions.
Manifest: Immediate result.
Latency: Long-term result.
Behavioral (actions). Acting negatively towards someone based on prejudices.
Individual: one person / group discriminating others.
Institutional: One large group / corporation discriminating towards a group / individual.
Cells in the stomach and their Secretion
Mucous cells: Mucous.
Chief cells: pepsinogen (cleaved to pepsin via H+)
Parietal cells: HCl.
G-cells: gastrin (induces stomach to contract)
Alpha: loss of 2 protons and 2 neutrons (A-4 / Z - 2)
Beta + : loss of positron (e+); loss of proton (+) to neutron (-).
Beta - : loss of electron (e-); neutron (0) turns into proton (+).
Gamma decay: emission of light.
Reduction of COOH
LiAlH4 (strong reducing agent).
Reduced to primary alcohol.
Deviance is normal if there is no connection between social goals and social structure.
Common Demographic Categories
Age, gender, race and ethnicity, sexual orientation, and immigration status.
Self-fulfilling prophecy: conforming to an expectation.
Stereotype Threat: Feeling anxious about confirming a stereotype (Ex. a woman driver).
Sign Convention for a Single Lens
1/F = 1/Object + 1/Image = 2/r.
i > o : image opposite side of lens from light source and is real.
i < o : image same side of lens from light source and is virtual.
m = -i/o.
IR: Inverted = Real
UV: Upright = Virtual
Displaying oneself to others through culturally accepted behaviors.
Authentic self: Who you really are.
Ideal self: Who you would want to be.
Tactical self: Who you ought to be.
A change in behavior based on a request.
Foot-in-the-door: starting with something small, then working to something big.
Door-in-the-face: starting with something big, then working to something small.
Affective (emotions / feelings).
Irrational thoughts / feelings / attitudes toward a person prior to actual experience to the entity.
Sign Convention for a Single Mirror
1/f = 1/o + 1/i = 2/r
i > o : image front of mirror and is real.
i < o : image behind mirror and is virtual.
IR: Inverted = Real.
UV: Upright = Virtual.
m = -i/o.
Henderson -Hasselbalch Equation
ph = pKa + log([A-]/[HA]).
At equivalence point: pH = pKa.
[A-] = conjugate base.
[HA] = acid.
Pressure applied to an incompressible fluid will be exerted all throughout the fluid's volume.
P = F1 / A1 = F2 / A2.
F2 = F1(A2 / A1).
Work = Pressure * change in Volume = F1/A1(A1d1) = F2/A2(A2d2).
The ratio of force per unit area, and is given by: P=F/Area. The unit is Pascal (1Pa = 1 N/m^2). Absolute Pressure is the pressure exerted on an object that is underwater.
Gauge pressure is the difference between atmospheric pressure and absolute pressure.
Magnetic Forces (Right Hand Rule)
B = μ*Current (I) / 2πr : Magnetic force at any point.
B = μ*Current (I) / 2r : Magnetic force at center of a wire.
Hexokinase (G -> G6P)
PFK1 (F6P -> F 1,6 bP) - activated by low ATP.
G3P-dehydrogenase (G3P -> 1,3 bpG) - produced 1 NADH.
Phosphoglycerate Kinase (1,3 bpG -> 3pG) - produces 1 ATP.
Pyruvate Kinase (PEP -> Pyruvate) - produces 1 ATP.
Coulomb's Law / Magnitude of Electric FIeld
Fe = (Kq1q2)/r^2 - Magnitude of Electrostatic Force.
E = Fe/q = kQ/r^2 - Magnitude of Electrostatic Field.
Restriction enzyme cleaves double strand DNA at specific site.
DNA fragment enters this space and is inserted in bacteria.
Bacteria replicate as well as DNA.
Capacitors (Series / Parallel)
V = I*C.
Series: Vt = V1 + V2 + Vn
Capacitor: 1/Ct = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/Cn
Current: It = I1 = I2 = In
Parallel: Vt = V1 = V2 = Vn
Capacitor: Ct = C1 + C2 + Cn
Current: It= I1 + I2 + In
C (capacitor) = Q (charge) / V (Voltage)
Periodic # - # of v. electrons = Formal Charge.
Ex. [NH4]+ : Formal charge of N = +1.
Heat (q) gain or lost in a reaction: q=mcΔT.
q(system) = -q(surroundings)
Constant volume = no work.
Terms for Phase Changes
S -> L: Fusion/melting.
L -> G: Boiling/Vaporization/Evaporation.
S -> G: Sublimation.
G -> S: Deposition.
Laminar flow in a pipe.
Q = π(r^4)ΔP / 8ηL : r(radius); P(pressure); η(viscosity); L(length of pipe).
Increase in radius = decrease in pressure.
The difference between the atmospheric pressure and the absolute pressure.
Pg = P(abs) - P(atm) = (Po + density
z) - P(atm).
Can be smell (olfactory), taste, somatosensation (temp., pain, pressure, vibration); and kinesthetic sense (proprioception; spatial awareness).
DNA -> mRNA.
RNA pol. 2 unwinds DNA in 3' -> 5' and synthesis mRNA in the 5' -> 3' direction.
RNA pol. 2 binds to TATA box, located within the promotor region.
hnRNA -> mRNA after intron splicing, 5' cap, and 3' poly-A tail.
mRNA binds to 80s ribosome (40s + 60s).
tRNA binds to mRNA (A -> P -> E).
GTP used during peptide bond formation (P site).
Post translational modification: phosphorylation, carboxylation, and glycosylation.
Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
Transcription factors bind promotor to enhancer region on DNA, amplifying DNA replication.
Histone acetylation (de-condense chromatin).
DNA methylation (condense chromatin).
Formation of Imine
Aldehydes / Ketones react with NH3 and other nitrogen molecules.
Imines are compounds with a double bond between Carbon and Nitrogen.
Control of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes
Operons (genes in mRNA) are inducible or repressible.
Inducible: mRNA bonded with repressor, but activated by removing repressor (lac operon).
Repressible: turning off of mRNA transcription by adding repressor to operator site (to operon); Negative feedback.
Theoretical Approach: Symbolic Interactionism
Individuals interact with others using words, gestures, and other symbols (things that we attach meaning to).
Solubility Product Constant (Ksp)
Concentration at which ions are in equilibrium in a dissolved solution.
Ksp = [A^n+]^m [B^m-]^n
The sharing of p-orbitals in order to form equivalent bonds.
sp3: contains 4 bonds.
sp2: contains 3 bonds.
sp: contains 2 bonds.
Peptide and Steroid Hormones
Peptide: hydrophilic; use GPCR.
Steroid: hydrophobic; bind intracellular / intranuclear.
Includes: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thought / behavior.
Positive: symptoms added to their abnormal behavior.
Negative: absence of normal behavior.
Personality Disorders Cluster C
Labeled as anxious or fearful by others.
Include: Avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.
Personality Disorders Cluster B
Labeled as dramatic, emotional, or erratic by others.
Include: Antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders.
Personality Disorders Cluster A
Disorders found weird by others.
Include: Paranoid, schizotypal, and schizoid personality disorders.
Types of Transporters in Membranes
No energy required: Simple, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion (channels).
Energy required: active transport (primary uses ATP directly; secondary couples transport across membrane).
Saturation of Lipids (in plasma membranes)
Saturated: no double bonds; decrease fluidity.
Unsaturated: at least on double bond; increase fluidity.
Cholesterol (in terms of plasma membrane fluidity)
Low temp: increase fluidity.
High temp: decrease fluidity.
Mutations in mRNA
Silent: no change in AA.
Missense: change in AA.
Nonsense: stop codon.
Frameshift: addition / deletion of nucleotides into the genome either adds to the AA sequence or shortens it.
Introns are spliced (removed) from hnRNA to form mRNA.
Alternative splicing: putting exons together in different combinations to form new proteins.
Mechanism of Nucleophilic Addition Reactions
Carbonyl carbon becomes electrophile.
Nucleophile (anything that adds electrons) attacks carbonyl carbon.
Vygotsky's Cultural Development
Cognitive development by internalization of social aspects / rules.
Zone of proximal development: skills that are not apt, but are in the process of developing.
The Big 5 Traits of Personality
Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism.
Freud's Model of the Mind
Id: Superficial feelings / emotions (savagery).
Superego: idealist / perfectionist (classy / perfect person).
Ego: mediator between the two (realist).
Group of society whom we believe we are associated with.
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
Pre-conventional: preadolescence; S1 (obedience), S2 (self-interest).
Conventional: adolescence -> adults; S3 (conformity), S4 (Law and Order).
Post-conventional: Adulthood (rarely); S5 (Social contract); S6 (Universal Human ethics).
Erikson's Stages of Psychological Development (Existential Questions)
T/M: Can I trust the world?
A/S: Is it okay to be me?
I/G: Ok for me to act, move?
I/I: Can I be gg in the world?
I/RC: Who am I?
I/I: Can I love?
G/S: Can I make my life count?
I/D: Did I enjoy my life?
Erikson's Stages of Psychological Development (Name and Ages)
Trust vs. Mistrust: (0-1)
Autonomy vs. Shame: (1-3)
Initiative vs. Guilt: (3-6)
Industry vs. Inferiority: (6-12)
Identity vs. Role Confusion: (12-20)
Intimacy vs. Isolation (20-40)
Generativity vs. Stagnation (40-65)
Integrity vs. Despair (65+)
Trust the Auto Initiative Industry, Identify with Intimate Geniuses with Integrity.
Freud's Five Stages of Psychological Development
Oral: gratification by mouth; adult (dependency); 0-1 years.
Anal: gratification via excretion; toilet training; 1-3 years.
Phallic: Oedipal (son loving mom), electra (girl having penis envy); 3-5 years.
Latency: before puberty.
Genital: during puberty; hetero (norm); homo (abnormal).
Kinetic energy (KE = 1/2mv^2).
Potential energy (PE = mgh).
Total energy: E = KE + PE.
Minimum amount of energy required to stimulate the sensory system in the human body.
Work (Pressure and Volume)
Transfer of energy between fluids.
W = PΔV; found by calculating area under the curve.
When V=0, W=0 (no area under curve), and is known as an isovolumetric process.
Innermost primary germ layer of the gastrula. Forms the epithelial linings of the digestive and respiratory tract, as well as the thyroid, bladder, pancreas, and liver.
Endo = endernal linings of the internal organs.
The middle primary germ layer of the gastrula. Forms the musculoskeletal system, the circulator system, the gonads, and the adrenal cortex.
Meso = meanso-derm.
The mesoderm forms the notochord, which causes overlying cells in the ectoderm to fold, forming the neural tubes, which differentiates into the CNS. Neural crest cells next to the neural tube form the PNS.
Amphipathic (hydrophobic / hydrophilic). Saturation (no double bonded carbons).
Unsaturation (contains at least one double bond).
Rearrangements of a molecule's electron structure (bonds, charge). Three rules:
1) More stable resonance structure has small or no formal charge.
2) Less separation of opposite charges is more stable.
3) More electronegative atoms receive the formal charges.
Heat of Transformation
The amount of energy gained or lost during a phase change of a substance.
q = mL; L = heat of transformation.
The loss of memories through age or trauma.
Anterograde amnesia: unable to form new memories.
Retrograde amnesia: Loss of older memories.
Bicarbonate Buffer System
Decrease respiratory rate -->
CO2 + H2O <-> H2CO3 <-> H+ + HCO3-
<-- Increase respiratory rate.
Increase [H+]: Increase breathing (acidosis).
Increase [CO2]: Decrease breathing (alkalemia).
Detects presence and quantity of specific DNA in a given sample.
Mesylates, Tosylates, and Diols
All used as protecting groups for ketones, aldehydes.
Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve
Increase O2 sat. of hemoglobin means there is less O2 in circulation, and less O2 supplied to organs.
Exercising, increase [H+], decrease O2 sat. shifts curve to the right.
Ideal Gas Law
PV = nRT.
No intermolecular forces, and no occupation of space.
Density: p = P*(molar mass) / RT
Glycogen -> Glucose
Glycogen phosphorylase (breaks α 1,4 linkages).
Debranching enzyme (breaks α 1,4 and α 1,6 links).
Increases by glucagon, epinephrine, and AMP.
Determining Rate Law (using data)
rate = k[A]^x[B]^y[C]^z
Use two trials that have changing concentration and rate.
Determine magnitude of change for both, and plug into: rate = Δ[A]^x.
Have H instead of OH on 3' C, which stops DNA pol. 3 from working; stops DNA replication.
Creates fragments of DNA; may be observed by gel electrophoresis.
Ka and pKa
Dissociation constant, which measures the strength of an acid in solution.
Ka = [H+][A-]/[HA] ; [A-] = conjugate base; [HA] = acid.
Low pKa = acid
High pKa = base.
pKa = -logKa
Reaction Orders (rate orders)
Rate = Molarity / seconds.
Zero: rate = k[A]^0; M/s.
First: rate = k[A]^1 or [B]^1; rate = 1/s.
Second: rate = k[A]^2, k[B]^2, or k[A]^1[B]^1; 1/s*M.
Available - decision making based on how readily an example comes to mind.
Representative - decision making based on whether it fits expectations / stereotypes.
Regulation of Blood Pressure
Capillary beds act as resistors in parallel: More capillaries = decrease in resistance.
ADH: Increase BP via water.
Aldosterone: Increase BP via salt.
ANP: Decrease BP (diuretic)
Components of Attitudes
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor (0-2): understanding one's environment; lack object permanence.
Pre-operational (2-7): symbolic thinking; lack idea of conservation.
Concrete operational (7-11): concrete thinking.
Formal operational (11+): abstract thought and problem solving.
aA + bB <-> cC + dD.
Kc = Keq = ([C]^c)([D]^d) / ([A]^a)([B]^b)
Q<Keq: ΔG<0 (forward direction)
Q=Keq: ΔG=0 (equilibrium)
Q>Keq: ΔG>0 (reverse direction)
High value for Keq: equilibrium will be towards the right of a concentration.
Na+ influx -> K+ efflux: depolarization.
Na+ efflux -> K+ influx: Repolarization / hyperpolarization.
Na/K pump maintains resting potential (-70mV).
Oxidation of Alcohols (Primary and Secondary)
Primary OH: aldehyde (PCC) or carboxylic acid (strong oxidizing agent).
Secondary OH: ketone (strong oxidizing agent).
Fluid Balance within Capillary Bed
Hydrostatic pressure: pushes fluid out of capillaries.
Oncotic (osmotic) pressure: influx of fluid into the capillaries.
Arteriole: Increased hydrostatic pressure (fluid out)
Venule: Decreased hydrostatic pressure (fluid into)
f' = f(v±vd)/(v∓vs) ; vd = speed of detector; vs = speed of source.
Top sign: toward
Bottom sign: away (bye)
α - β Linkage in Di/Polysaccharides
Anomeric carbon (#1 Carbon that forms glycosidic bond with itself) and its OH substituent decides:
α: Oxygen pointed down (axial)
β: oxygen pointed up (equitorial)
Transgenic and Knockout Mice
Trans: add genes into germ/embryonic stem cells.
Knock: take out gene.
Helicase unwinds DNA.
Primase adds RNA 5' -> 3'.
DNA pol. 3 adds nucleotides 3' -> 5'.
DNAase removes RNA.
DNA pol. 1 adds missing DNA.
Ligase joins okazaki fragments.
5' -> 3': Leading strand.
3' -> 5': Lagging strand.
Theories of Language Development
Nativist (bio) - innate ability to learn language using LAD: language acquisition device.
Learning (behavior) - operant conditioning with reinforcement.
Social interactionist - desire to communicate / act socially.
Reducing and Oxidizing agents
Oxidizing agents: anything with a metal and oxygens; add oxygens, or remove H+.
Reducing agents: anything with a lot of hydrogens; add H+, or remove oxygens.
Elaboration Likelihood Model (Persuasion)
Individual processing of info.
Central route: high elaboration; analyzing content.
Peripheral route: low elaboration; care only about superficial details (looks).
Glucose -> G1P -> Glycogen: using glycogen synthase.
Insulin increases glycogen.
Glucagon, epinephrine, AMP decrease glycogen.
α 1-4 and α 1-6 linkages.
Structural Proteins (of a cell)
Include collagen (strength and flexibility, elastin (elasticity), actin (microfilaments, thin filaments), and tubulin (microtubules).
Stages of Embryonic Development
After fertilization of sperm with a secondary oocyte, it forms a zygote (2n), then a morulla (4, 8, 16 cell), then a blastulla, then a gastrulla.
Zygote -> Morulla -> Blastulla -> Gastrulla (primary germ layers)
Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMS)
Cell surface binding proteins that include:
cadherins: mediate Ca2+ dependent cell adhesion.
Integrins: communicate with extracellular space.
Selectins: bind to carbohydrates from other molecules.
Using a column, the absorbent contains receptors for specific proteins. Separates a specific protein by retaining it to the absorbent.
In a tube with a constant flow rate (Q), linear speed (v) increases and decreases pressure (p) in a small area.
Type of gel electrophoresis that separates proteins based on their specific isoelectric point (pI; zwitterions). Positively charged proteins migrate to anode, while negatively charged proteins migrate to cathode.
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