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49 terms

Anatomy and Physiology Ch. 1 and 3

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Anatomy
the study of the structure and shape of the body and body parts and their relationships to one another
Physiology
the study of the body and its parts work or function
Levels of organization
atom - molecule - cell - tissue - organs - organ systems
Integumentary system
skin; boundry (separates you from environment)
Skeletal System
bones, cartilage, ligaments, joints; movement (provides framework that skeletal muscles use to provide movement)
Muscular system
muscles; movement (muscles contract to cause movement)
Nervous system
brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors; responsiveness (body's fast acting control system)
Endocrine system
pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, thymus, pancreas, pineal, ovaries/testes; responsiveness (controls body activity)
Cardiovascular system
heart, blood vessels; carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, etc. to and from the tissue cells where exchanges are made
Lymphatic system
lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils; helps cleanse the body and house the cells involved in immunity
Respiratory system
nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs; keeps the body constantly supplied with oxygen and to remove carbon dioxide
Digestive system
mouth, esophagus, stomach, small/large intestines, rectum; break down food to basic molecules
Excretory system
kidneys, ureter, bladder, urethra; getting rid of cell waste
Reproductive system
scrotum, penis, accessory glands, duct system OR ovary, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina; reproduction
Survival needs
nutrients- source of energy and materials,
oxygen- release energy from food,
water- body chemistry,
temperature- (hot) denature proteins,
atmospheric pressure- without pressure, we cant exchange gas
Homeostasis
"steady state" ability to maintain a stable state of internal conditions
Dynamic Mechanism (3 components)
control center- realizes if something isnt balanced,
receptor- takes info to control center (afferent pathway),
effector- takes info from control center (efferent pathway)
Types of mechanism (2)
positive feedback- increases response,
negative feedback- stops the response and does opposite to balance body
Superior
toward head
Inferior
away from head
anterior
toward front of body
posterior
toward back of body
medial
toward midline of body
Lateral
away from midline of body
Intermediate
between a more medial and a more lateral structure
Proximal
Close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a lumb to the body trunk
Distal
Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Superficial
toward or at body surface
Deep
Away from body surface; more internal
Plane
a cut through the body (section) is made from an imaginary plane
Median sagittal or midsagittal plane
lengthwise (longitudinal), divides body into right and left halves
Frontal (coronal) plane
lengthwise, divides into anterior and posterior
Transverse plane
horizontal (cross section), divides into superior and inferior
Dorsal cavity
well-protected by bone; two divisions:
cranial- space inside scull; brain
spinal- from base of cranial cavity nearly to end of vertebral column; spinal cord
Ventral cavity
less protected by muscle, ribs, pelvis; two divisions
thoracic- superior portion; diaphragm, lungs, heart, etc.
abdominalpelvic- inferior portion; stomach, liver, intestines (abdominal), reproductive organs, bladder, rectum(pelvic)
Tissue
group of cells that are similar in structure or function
Histology
study of tissues; important for diagnosis of disease
Epithelial tissue
covers and lines all body surfaces; functions: protection, absorbtion, filtration, secretion; forms sheets of cells or membranes, no blood supply (can regenerate easily)
Connective tissue
most abundant of tissues, found everywhere; functions: connect to body parts, bind tissues together, protect organs; have living cells in a nonliving matrixm nist are vascular
Muscle tissue
specialized to contact and allow movement of the body and substances in it; elongated cells; three types:
skeletal, smooth, cardiac
Skeletal muscle tissue
long cells (many nuclei), striated, voluntary control
Smooth muscle tissue
Spindle shape (one nucleus), not striated, involuntary control, found in intestines, uterus, blood vessels
Cardiac muscle tissue
branched cells (one nucleus), striated with intercalated disks between cells, involuntary control, found in heart only
Nervous tissue
cells are irritable (able to receive a stimulus), cells are conductive (able to send an impulse), make up the structure of the nervous system (brain, spinal cord, nerves, some sensory structures
Neuron
highly specialixed to receive and transmit nerve impulses and supporting cells; important in control of body processes
Cutaneous membrane
epithelial epidermis and connective tissue dermis; covers body exterior (skin); protects deeper body tissues from external insults
Mucous membrane
epithelial sheet underaid by a connective tissue layer called lamina propria; line respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive tracts; protection, lubrication, secretion, absorbtion
Serous membrane
simple squamous epithelium resting on scant layer of fine connective tissue; line internal ventral body cavities and cover their organs; produces a lubricating fluid that reduces friction
Synovial membrane
entirely connective tissue; line joint cavities of synovial joints; produce lubrication to decrease friction with in the joint cavity