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the study of the structure and shape of the body and body parts and their relationships to one another
bones, cartilage, ligaments, joints; movement (provides framework that skeletal muscles use to provide movement)
brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors; responsiveness (body's fast acting control system)
pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, thymus, pancreas, pineal, ovaries/testes; responsiveness (controls body activity)
heart, blood vessels; carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, etc. to and from the tissue cells where exchanges are made
lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils; helps cleanse the body and house the cells involved in immunity
nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs; keeps the body constantly supplied with oxygen and to remove carbon dioxide
mouth, esophagus, stomach, small/large intestines, rectum; break down food to basic molecules
scrotum, penis, accessory glands, duct system OR ovary, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina; reproduction
nutrients- source of energy and materials,
oxygen- release energy from food,
water- body chemistry,
temperature- (hot) denature proteins,
atmospheric pressure- without pressure, we cant exchange gas
Dynamic Mechanism (3 components)
control center- realizes if something isnt balanced,
receptor- takes info to control center (afferent pathway),
effector- takes info from control center (efferent pathway)
Types of mechanism (2)
positive feedback- increases response,
negative feedback- stops the response and does opposite to balance body
Close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a lumb to the body trunk
Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Median sagittal or midsagittal plane
lengthwise (longitudinal), divides body into right and left halves
well-protected by bone; two divisions:
cranial- space inside scull; brain
spinal- from base of cranial cavity nearly to end of vertebral column; spinal cord
less protected by muscle, ribs, pelvis; two divisions
thoracic- superior portion; diaphragm, lungs, heart, etc.
abdominalpelvic- inferior portion; stomach, liver, intestines (abdominal), reproductive organs, bladder, rectum(pelvic)
covers and lines all body surfaces; functions: protection, absorbtion, filtration, secretion; forms sheets of cells or membranes, no blood supply (can regenerate easily)
most abundant of tissues, found everywhere; functions: connect to body parts, bind tissues together, protect organs; have living cells in a nonliving matrixm nist are vascular
specialized to contact and allow movement of the body and substances in it; elongated cells; three types:
skeletal, smooth, cardiac
Smooth muscle tissue
Spindle shape (one nucleus), not striated, involuntary control, found in intestines, uterus, blood vessels
Cardiac muscle tissue
branched cells (one nucleus), striated with intercalated disks between cells, involuntary control, found in heart only
cells are irritable (able to receive a stimulus), cells are conductive (able to send an impulse), make up the structure of the nervous system (brain, spinal cord, nerves, some sensory structures
highly specialixed to receive and transmit nerve impulses and supporting cells; important in control of body processes
epithelial epidermis and connective tissue dermis; covers body exterior (skin); protects deeper body tissues from external insults
epithelial sheet underaid by a connective tissue layer called lamina propria; line respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive tracts; protection, lubrication, secretion, absorbtion
simple squamous epithelium resting on scant layer of fine connective tissue; line internal ventral body cavities and cover their organs; produces a lubricating fluid that reduces friction
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