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APUSH Unit 2 Vocab Set #1
Terms in this set (33)
A founding father of the United States. He was a major force in the dismantling of the Articles of Confederation and institution the Constitution. The founder of our nation's financial system, as Secretary Hamilton established a national bank within the US, helped to normalize trade with Britain, created a system of tariffs, and funded state debts by the federal government. He was also the founder of the first American political party, the Federalist Party, and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers, the most important arguments in support of the Constitution.
An American founding father, statesman, and political theorist. He is hailed as the "Father of the Constitution" for being instrumental in the drafting of the Constitution, as well as the key champion and author of the Bill of Rights. He was also a writer of the Federalist Papers, and worked with Thomas Jefferson to organize the Democratic- Republican Party. In addition to being the fourth President and leading the US through the War of 1812, he served as Jefferson's Secretary of State and over saw the Louisiana Purchase.
Edmund Randolph was the seventh governor of Virginia, second secretary of state, and the first United States attorney general. He served as a delegate of Virginia at the Constitutional Convention where he introduced the Virginia Plan as an outline for government. The Virginia Plan's 15 resolutions greatly influenced the first draft of the US Constitution. He also advocated a National Judiciary be established, after the Articles of Confederation failed to do so. Randolph argued that "a national government ought to be established, consisting of a supreme Legislative, Executive, and Judiciary."
A founding father, lawyer and Connecticut statesman. During the Constitutional Convention of 1787, Sherman presented "The Great Compromise" (also called the Connecticut Compromise) to settle a dispute in the drafting of the Constitution. The Compromise devised a system that would please both the large and small states by dividing the legislative branch into two houses. One house would have a number of representatives from each state proportional to that state's population, and one House to have an equal number of representatives from each state (2 members).
One of the founding fathers, the primary author of the Declaration of Independence, the third president (taking office in 1801), and the United States' first ambassador to France following the Treaty of Paris. As ambassador to France he was instrumental in establishing a good relationship with the French government and the sovereignty of the United States in French eyes. He lead the Republican Party in opposition to Hamilton's federalists until their downfall in 1796 and his election a year later. Jefferson believed in a decentralized agrarian republic. The Federal government should have limited power, emphasis should be placed on small-scale agricultural activity without a national bank according to Jefferson. He eventually defeated John Adams and the Federalist party in the brutal election of 1800, ushering in the Jeffersonian Era.
Known for his speaking skills and support of America's independence, Patrick Henry proposed ideas in 1765 that would be shown in the "Virginia Resolves". He became the Governor of Virginia in 1776. As a founding father, he promoted a weak central government and stronger state governments, as an anti-federalist.
A system of government in which supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodic free elections. In a direct democracy, the public participates in government directly (as in ancient Greece). In a representative democracy, citizens elects representatives to represent them in government. Most democracies today are representative. The Constitution sets up the United States as a representative democracy.
A government in which supreme power resides in a body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by elected officers and representatives responsible to them and governing according to law (in other words, a representative democracy). Republics, in contrast to other governmental structures, are generally led by elected officials, rather than a monarch. The United States has a republican government.
Statute of Religious Liberty
The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1777, was a statute which disestablished the Church of England in Virginia. It is known as a prominent precursor to the First Amendment to the Constitution. Many dissenting Protestant sects had petitioned the government of Virginia for religious liberty over the past decade. This statue granted religious liberty to all religions, and was a clear representation of the separation between church and state, boldly stating "all men shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their opinions in matters of religion, and that the same shall in no wise diminish, enlarge or affect their civil capacities".
At the conclusion of the Revolutionary War, several American generals met in Newburgh, New York to discuss an uprising against the Continental Congress. The conspiracy was spurred by discontent within the Continental Army over soldiers not being paid. Had George Washington not put it to rest when he encouraged patience and compromise among the troops, and when he made it clear to those aiming to take advantage of the situation that they would be disregarding the sacrifices and ideals that had made the Revolution possible, the dangerous notion to take over the government could have proven disastrous for the newly formed nation.
The Articles of Confederation
Going into effect in 1781, The Articles of Confederation was an agreement among the 13 founding states that established the United States of America as a confederation of sovereign states and served as its first constitution. They provided domestic and international legitimacy for the Continental Congress to direct the Revolution, conduct diplomacy with Europe, and deal with territorial issues and Native American relations. Nevertheless, the weakness of the government created by the Articles became a matter of concern and in 1789 they were replaced by the US Constitution, and generally failed due to the national's governments severe limitations. The Constitution provided for the strong national government the Articles lacked; one with a chief executive, courts, and taxing powers.
An act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States that most notably created the Northwest Territory, the first organized territory in the US. The Territory stretched from south of the Great Lakes, to north and south of the Ohio River, and to east of the Mississippi. It called for dividing the territory into gridded townships which could be sold, and for a portion of the proceeds generated from the sale of the land to be used to build a school in the area. This provided both a new source of federal government revenue and an orderly pattern for future settlement. The Ordinance established the precedent by which the federal government would be sovereign and expand westward across North America with the admission of new states, rather than with the expansion of existing states. Additionally, the prohibition of slavery in the territory had the practical effect of establishing the Ohio River as the boundary between free and slave territory. This division helped set the stage for national competition over admitting free and slave states, the basis of a critical question in American politics until the Civil War.
An uprising led by Daniel Shays, a former Captain in the Continental Army. At the time, many who settled on the frontier struggled with debt as they attempted to establish small farms. When they could not pay the high taxes imposed by the newly-formed American government in order to pay off war debts, many had their land seized and were put in prison. Shays organized rebellions in the west until the state militia finally scattered them months later. In response to the rebellion, Congress reversed some of its debt policies in order to provide relief for poor farmers and prevent future resistance.
A 1786 meeting of delegates from five states, led by Alexander Hamilton and other politicians who were dissatisfied with the Articles of Confederation. The goal was to establish a new constitution, but the delegates only met for three days, realizing that an insufficient number of states were represented. They called for a broader meeting in Philadelphia the next year, directly leading to the Philadelphia Convention in 1787, where the Constitution was ratified.
The political leaders and statesmen who participated in the American Revolution by signing the Declaration of Independence, taking part in the American Revolutionary War, and establishing the United States Constitution. Key Founding Fathers include: John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and George Washington.
A system of government in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between a central governing authority and constituent political units (such as states or provinces). Federalism is a system based upon democratic rules and institutions in which the power to govern is shared between national and provincial/state governments, creating what is often called a federation.
The Philadelphia Congress was called for by Alexander Hamilton at a meeting in Annapolis, Maryland, during 1786. Originally, it was intended as a convention to revise the Articles of Confederation so that they better met the demands of the nation, in the wake of issues such as Shay's Rebellion. Somewhat surprisingly, twelve states sent delegates, with the only absence being Rhode Island. These fifty-five men met secretly in the Philadelphia State House, from May to September 1787, as they struggled to create what is known as the Constitution. There were many discrepancies between the wishes of various states, but ended up making compromises such as the representation of slaves, and the nature of legislature. Of course, they were not able to dispose of all differences in opinion, and many important questions came back to haunt them in later years, namely the definition of citizenship. The question remains whether or not the founding fathers were entirely legal in their drafting of this document; for while they were sent to revise the Articles, they were not explicitly given the permission to completely nullify them.
New Jersey Plan
Submitted by William Paterson of New Jersey as an alternative to The Virginia Plan. This plan proposed a federal government instead of a national one. It preserved the one house legislature (where states had equal representation). The plan also expanded the power of congress to tax and regulate commerce. It was supported by other small states. The plan was first drafted in response to clamor over the Virginia Plan, which, among other things, suggested that the number of representatives would be selected from each state based on said state's population; this threatened the smaller states, who feared that such a measure would leave them potentially outvoted in every future legislative scenario. Thus, it was suggested that equality of the states themselves, a tenant derived from the Articles of Confederation, was paramount in development of the voting rights of the states. Its inception and subsequent conflict with the Virginia Plan eventually helped to bring about the Great Compromise, arguably the most important idea concerning U.S. legislative formulation during this time.
Plan proposed at Constitutional Convention by Edmund Randolph. The Virginia Plan Called for a new national legislature consisting of two houses and a Judiciary branch. The lower house would consist of representatives based on the state population. Members of the upper house would be elected by members of the lower house. This plan caused opposition by both small states, like Delaware, and to a lesser degree, large states, like Virginia. The small states worried about equal representation, considering that their small population would result in less representatives in the lower house. This idea ran the risk of them having no representation in the upper house. Another issue was if slaves counted as population or not. The slavery states wanted them to be considered for representation, and not for taxation, whereas the non-slavery states wanted them to count for taxation and less for representation. the issues that arose from the Virginia Plan were resolved in 1787 with the Great Compromise.
The Connecticut Compromise (also known as the Great compromise of 1787 or Sherman's Compromise) was an agreement between large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States constitution. It retained the bicameral legislature as proposed by Roger Sherman, along with proportional representation in the lower house, but required the upper house to be weighted equally between the states. Each State would have two representatives in the upper house.
George Washington's Presidential Cabinet consisted of Thomas Jefferson as Secretary of State, Alexander Hamilton as Secretary of Treasury, Henry Knox as Secretary of War and Edmund Randolph as Attorney General. These cabinet members were nominated in 1789 by Washington and were to advise the President in the subjects that they hold offices in.
The 3/5's Compromise was a compromise between Southern and Northern States reached during the Philadelphia Convention in 1787. It said that a single slave would be counted for three-fifths of a vote for representation for the U.S. House of Representatives. The reasons for the compromise's inception were both born of gridlock between the Northern and Southern states over two propositions during the foundation of Constitutional framework; one of which was a call for federal taxation of the states based upon each state's population, the other, following the advent of the Virginia Plan and, consequently, the Great Compromise, was the idea that state representation in the United States House of Representatives would be based upon state population as well. The states were all torn in regards to whether or not the slave population was to be considered people and thus eligible for consideration in state representation and taxation figures. The South wanted to avoid excess taxation but wanted their slaves to count for their population it terms of the number of representatives they could send to Congress. Meanwhile, the North wanted the exact opposite: increased taxation focused on the South but less representatives outweighing them in political decisions. The issue was hotly contested for weeks before it was suggested that each slave in the South could account for 3/5th's of one white individual.
Congress wished to established federal regulation of inter-state commerce, which alarmed the Southerners who anticipated an abolishing of the slave trade, which would severely impact the region's plantation economy. This resulted in yet another series of debates and arguments concerning the proposition, and ultimately in another compromise, this one, the Commerce Compromise, allowing federal regulation of commerce but disallowing federal taxation on imports or any attempt to abolish the slave trade within twenty years of the compromise's ratification; and no taxes on slaves greater than ten dollars was permitted. Of course, as soon as the twenty year time limit had expired, the slave trade was abolished, which drove another wedge between the North and South.
The Federalist Party was the first American political party, existing from the early 1790s to 1816. It was formed by Alexander Hamilton, who built a network of supporters, largely urban bankers and businessmen, to support his fiscal policies.The Federalists were strong supporters of the Constitution, and their policies called for a national bank, tariffs, and good relations with Britain. The United States' only Federalist president was John Adams; although George Washington was broadly sympathetic to the Federalist program. Additionally, the Federalists left a lasting imprint as they fashioned a strong government with a sound financial base as the foundation of American government. Prominent Federalists include John Adams and Alexander Hamilton.
The Anti-Federalists were a diverse coalition of people who opposed ratification of the Constitution. Most thought that thought that a stronger government threatened the sovereignty and prestige of the states, localities, or individuals. Although less well organized than the Federalists, they also had an impressive group of leaders who were especially prominent in state politics. Notable Anti-Federalists included Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, and James Monroe.
The Necessary and Proper clause, also called the elastic clause, is the provision in Article One of the Constitution granting Congress the authority to pass all laws necessary to enforce the previously listed government powers. It was a major sticking point in the convention, as Federalists believed it was an appropriate means to establish Congress' power, but Anti-Federalists thought it would lead to limitless federal power and menacing of individual liberty. Patrick Henry was the leader of the opposition to the clause.
The law-making (and editing) branch of our government! Collectively known as Congress, the Legislative Branch is divided into the House of Representatives (consisting of 435 directly elected representatives from each of the 50 states - the number of representatives a state has is determined by population) and the Senate (consisting of 100 directly elected members, 2 from each state). Congress has the power to establish the federal budget and levy taxes to support that budget, declare war or make treaties, confirm or reject presidential appointments (officials, such as the Justices of the Supreme Court, appointed by the President), and (most importantly) to enact laws that are "necessary and proper" for the government to function. To become a law, a bill must be passed by both chambers of Congress with a 2/3 majority and win the approval of the President. If the President vetoes the bill, Congress may override the decision with another 2/3 majority vote. If the bill is vetoed and does not win another 2/3 majority vote, it is scrapped and the whole legislative process begins again.
Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights, introduced by James Madison and passed in 1789, is the collective name of the first 10 amendments to the Constitution. They were introduced after the ratification of the Constitution in order to calm fears of Anti-Federalists who opposed ratifying the Constitution. They guaranteed personal freedoms, limited the federal governments power in judicial and other proceedings, and reserved some powers to the states and the public. They were important because they enumerated freedoms not explicitly indicated in the main Constitution, such as freedom of religion, freedom of speech, a free press, and free assembly; the right to bear arms, freedom from unreasonable search and seizure, security in personal effects, and freedom from warrants issued without due cause. Additionally, the Bill of Rights reserved for the people any rights not specifically mentioned, and reserved all powers not specifically granted to the federal government to the people or states.
In relation to American history, the process of passing the Constitution and its amendments into law.
Consists of the Supreme Court Justices who serve for life. This faction of the government is responsible for interpreting laws and determining whether or not they are constitutional. This created a third and final means of "checking and balancing" the new government, in that laws that contradicted the Constitution, directly or indirectly, could be noted as such and duly struck down. However, it can only strike down laws if the law in question has one or more provisions that contradict the tenants of the Constitution itself, regardless of whether those involved in the interpretation process personally find a bill or law foolish, impractical, or contradictory to their moral code; this has been a source of contention throughout American history.
Headed by the President of the United States and a Cabinet under him or her, the Executive Branch is tasked with the administration and enforcement of laws passed by Congress. Largely due to an aversion to any form of government that rests an exorbitant amount of power upon a single individual, the President of the United States is limited to a finite number of powers, key abilities being that to sign bills into law, appoint members of Cabinet (with Senatorial approval), veto bills passed by Congress (a power one Andrew Jackson would one day gleefully utilize)--although Congress can override this veto with a two-thirds majority--, extend pardons to criminals in all cases save impeachment, and negotiate and sign treaties, which again must be ratified by two-thirds of Congress. The amount to which the President and by extension the rest of the Executive Branch must defer to Congress is both a result of checks and balances and a demonstration of American discomfort with consolidation of power in a single individual.
The Federalist Papers
The Federalist Papers were a series of articles saying that ratifying the new Constitution was good. There were 85 of them and they were written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. They held a large opposition to the possibility of a Bill of Rights in the Constitution and were, as is stated by the name, written by the Federalists.
Separation of Powers
The only way that the colonists would accept a non-confederate government would be if there was a separation of powers so that they could ensure a democratic government. They divided the Federal Government into three branches, the Judicial, Legislative, and Executive. They operated on a system of Checks and Balances that ensured no branch took too much power.
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