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Terms in this set (25)

X. Burgoyne's Blundering Invasion
1. London officials adopted a complicated scheme for capturing the vital Hudson River valley in 1777, which, if successful, would sever New England from the rest of the colonies. The plan was such that...
• General Burgoyne would push down the Lake Champlain route from Canada.
• General Howe's troops in New York, if needed, could advance up the Hudson and meet Burgoyne in Albany.
• A third and much smaller British force commanded by Col. Barry St. Ledger would come in from the west by way of Lake Ontario and the Mohawk Valley.
2. However, Benedict Arnold, after failure at Quebec, retreated slowly along the St. Lawrence back to Lake Champlain, where the British would have to win control (of the lake) before proceeding.
• The Brits stopped to build a huge force, while Arnold assembled a tattered flotilla from whatever boats he could find.
• His "navy" was destroyed, but he had gained valuable time, because winter set in and the British settled in Canada, thus, they would have to begin anew the next spring.
o Had Arnold not contributed his daring and skill, the Brits most likely would have recaptured Ticonderoga and Burgoyne could have started from there and succeeded in his venture.
3. Burgoyne began his mission with 7,000 troops and a heavy baggage train consisting of a great number of the officers' wives.
• Meanwhile, sneaky rebels, sensing the kill, were gathering along his flanks.
4. General Howe, at a time when he should be starting up the Hudson, deliberately embarked for an attack on Philadelphia.
• He wanted to force an encounter with Washington and leave the path wide open for Burgoyne's thrust. He thought he had enough time to help Burgoyne if needed.
• Washington transferred his troops to Philadelphia, but was defeated at Brandywine Creek and Germantown.
• Then, the fun-loving Howe settled down in Philadelphia, leaving Burgoyne "to the dogs."
• Ben Franklin, in Paris, joked that Howe hadn't captured Philadelphia, but that "Philadelphia had captured Howe."
5. Washington finally retired for the winter at Valley Forge, where his troops froze in the cold, but a recently arrived Prussian drillmaster, Baron von Steuben, whipped the cold troops into shape.
6. Burgoyne's doomed troops were bogged down, and the rebels swarmed in with a series of sharp engagements, pushing St. Legers force back at Oriskany while Burgoyne, unable to advance or retreat, surrendered his entire force at the Battle of Saratoga, on October 17, 1777.
• This was perhaps one of the most decisive battles in British and American history.
• The importance of Saratoga lay in the fact that afterwards, France sensed America might actually win and came out to officially help America.
X. Washington's Neutrality Proclamation
1. With war came the call by the JDR's (Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans) to enter on the side of France, the recent friend of the U.S., against Britain, the recent enemy.
2. Hamilton leaned toward siding with the Brits, as doing so would be economically advantageous.
3. Washington knew that war could mean disaster and disintegration, since the nation in 1793 was militarily and economically weak and politically disunited.
4. In 1793, he issued the Neutrality Proclamation, proclaiming the U.S.'s official neutrality and warning Americans to stay out of the issue and be impartial.
5. JDR's were furious, and this controversial statement irked both sides, France and England.
6. Soon afterwards, Citizen Edmond Genêt, landed at Charleston, South Carolina, as representative to the U.S.
• On his trip to Philadelphia, he had been cheered rousingly by Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans, who supported France, and he came to wrongly believe that Washington's Neutrality Proclamation didn't truly reflect the feelings of Americans.
• Also, he equipped privateers to plunder British ships and to invade Spanish Florida and British Canada.
• He even went as far as to threaten to appeal over the head of Washington to the sovereign voters. Afterwards, he was basically kicked out of the U.S.
7. Actually, America's neutrality helped France, since only in that way could France get needed American foodstuffs to the Caribbean islands.
8. Although France was mad that the U.S. didn't help them, officially, the U.S. didn't have to honor its alliance from the Treaty of 1778 because France didn't call on it to do so.
XVII. The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson) Resolutions
1. Resentful Jeffersonians would not take these laws lying down, and Jefferson feared that the Federalists, having wiped out freedom of speech and of the press, might wipe out more.
2. He wrote a series of legislation that became the Kentucky Resolution in 1798-99, and friend James Madison wrote another series of legislation (less extreme) called the Virginia Resolution.
• They stressed the "compact theory" of government which meant that the 13 states, in creating the federal government, had entered into a contract regarding its jurisdiction, and the individual states were the final judges of the laws passed in Congress. In other words, the states had made the federal government, the federal government makes laws, but since the states made the federal government, the states reserve the right to nullify those federal laws. This compact theory is heard at this point, then again in 1832 regarding the national tariff, then again in the 1850s over slavery. Civil War erupts afterwards. Notably, this theory goes by several names, all synonymous: the "compact theory," "states' rights theory," or "nullification."
• This legislation set out to kill the Sedition and Alien Laws.
3. Only those two states adopted the laws.
4. Federalists, though, argued that the people, not the states, had made the contract, and it was up to the Supreme Court to nullify legislation, a procedure that it adopted in 1803.
5. While neither Madison nor Jefferson wanted secession, they did want an end to Federalist abuses.