Art History Chapter 3 Words

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amulet
An object worn to ward off evil or to aid the wearer.
ashlar masonry
Carefully cut and regularly shaped blocks of stone used in construction, fitted together without mortar.
atlantid
A male figure that functions as a supporting column. See also caryatid.
axial plan
The horizontal arrangement of the parts of a building or of the buildings and streets of a city or town, or a drawing or diagram showing such an arrangement. In an axial plan, the parts of a building are organized longitudinally, or along a given axis; in a central plan, the parts of the structure are of equal or almost equal dimensions around the center.
ben-ben
A pyramidal stone; a fetish of the Egyptian god Re.
bilateral symmetry
having the same forms on either side of a central axis.
block statue
In ancient Egyptian sculpture, a cubic stone image with simplified body parts.
canon
A rule, for example, of proportion. The ancient Greeks considered beauty to be a matter of correct proportion and sought a canon of proportion, for the human figure and for buildings.
canopic jar
In ancient Egypt, the container in which the organs of the deceased were placed for later burial with the mummy.
capital
the uppermost member of a column, serving as a transition from the shaft to the lintel. In classical architecture, the form of the capital varies with the order.
caryatid
A female figure that functions as a supporting column. See also atlantid.
chamfer
The surface formed by cutting off a corner of a board or post; a bevel.
clerestory
The fenestrated part of a building that rises above the roofs of the other parts. The oldest known clerestories are Egyptian. In Roman basilicas and medieval churches, clerestories are the windows that form the nave's uppermost level below the timber ceiling or the vaults.
colonnade
A series or row of columns, usually spanned by lintels.
column
A vertical, weight-carrying architectural member, circular in cross-section and consisting of a base (sometimes omitted), a shaft, and a capital.
course
In masonry construction, a horizontal row of stone blocks.
demotic
Late Egyptian writing.
dressed masonry
Stone blocks shaped to the exact dimensions required, with smooth faces for a perfect fit.
engaged column
A half-round column attached to a wall. See also pilaster.
facade
Usually, the front of a building; also, the other sides when they are emphasized architecturally.
flute or fluting
Vertical channeling, roughly semicircular in cross-section and used principally on columns and pilasters.
fresco
Painting on lime plaster, either dry (dry fresco or fresco secco) or wet (true or buon fresco). In the latter method, the pigments are mixed with water and become chemically bound to the freshly laid lime plaster. Also, a painting executed in either method.
fresco secco
Painting on lime plaster, either dry (dry fresco or fresco secco) or wet (true or buon fresco). In the latter method, the pigments are mixed with water and become chemically bound to the freshly laid lime plaster. Also, a painting executed in either method.
hieroglyphic
A system of writing using symbols or pictures.
hypostyle hall
A hall with a roof supported by columns.
ka
In ancient Egypt, the immortal human life force.
mastaba
Arabic, ench. An ancient Egyptian rectangular brick or stone structure with sloping sides erected over a subterranean tomb chamber connected with the outside by a shaft.
molding
In architecture, a continuous, narrow surface (projecting or recessed, plain or ornamented) designed to break up a surface, to accent, or to decorate.
mortuary temple
In Egyptian architecture, a temple erected for the worship of a deceased pharaoh.
mummification
A technique used by ancient Egyptians to preserve human bodies so that they may serve as the eternal home of the immortal ka.
necropolis
Greek, city of the dead. A large burial area or cemetery.
nemes
in ancient Egypt, the linen headdress worn by the pharaoh, with the uraeus cobra of kingship on the front.
palette
A thin board with a thumb hole at one end on which an artist lays and mixes colors; any surface so used. Also, the colors or kinds of colors characteristically used by an artist. In ancient Egypt, a slate slab used for preparing makeup.
papyrus
A plant native to Egypt and adjacent lands used to make paperlike writing material; also, the material or any writing on it.
pharaoh
An ancient Egyptian king.
pillar
Usually a weight-carrying member, such as a pier or a column; sometimes an isolated, freestanding structure used for commemorative purposes.
pylon
The wide entrance gateway of an Egyptian temple, characterized by its sloping walls.
scarab
An Egyptian gem in the shape of a beetle.
serdab
A small concealed chamber in an Egyptian mastaba for the statue of the deceased.
sphinx
A mythical Egyptian beast with the body of a lion and the head of a human.
stucco
A type of plaster used as a coating on exterior and interior walls.
subtractive sculpture
A kind of sculpture technique in which materials are taken away from the original mass; carving.
sunken relief
In sculpture, figures projecting from a background of which they are part. The degree of relief is designated high, low (bas), or sunken. In the last, the artist cuts the design into the surface so that the highest projecting parts of the image are no higher than the surface itself. See also repoussé.
uraeus
An Egyptian cobra; one of the emblems of pharaonic kingship.
ushabt
in ancient Egypt, a figurine placed in a tomb to act as a servant to the deceased in the afterlife.
valley temple
The temple closest to the Nile River associated with each of the Great Pyramids at Gizeh in ancient Egypt.
wedjat
The eye of the Egyptian falcon-god Horus, a powerful amulet.