67 terms

AP Comparative Government China

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cadre
a group of influential politicians capable of forming or leading an expanded organization
Central Committee
340 members that meet together annually for a week; carry on the business of the National Party Congress between sessions, although their policymaking powers are limited; meetings are called plenums
Central Military Commission
represents the military in china's government; head plays an important role in policymaking
chiang kai-shek
former nationalist leader of china who fled to taiwan after moa zedung took over
collectivism
the theory and practice of the ownership of land and the means of production by the people of the state
Chinese Communist Party
CCP which was founded in 1921 and came to power in 1949 and continues to be the ruling party of china
confucianism
a code of conduct developed by confucius, which emphasized obligations of the people toward each other and toward their state
cultural revolution
a program launched by mao zedung to renew loyalty to communism and purge china of those disloyal to mao
danwei
control maintained through this system, all chinese citizens have a lifetime affiliation with a specific industrial, agricultural, or bureaucratic nit that dictated all aspects of their lives, including housing, health care, and other social benefits
decentralization
the spread of power away from the center to local branches or governments
democratic centralism
decisions were made under central leadership to serve those interests
deng xiaoping theory
a practical mix of authoritarian political control and economic privatization; socialist planning and capitalist free market
dual role
vertical supervision of the next higher level of government and horizontal supervision of the CCP at the same level
dynastic cycles
the circle of change the chinese dynasties went through; establishing power, successful rule, decline, collapse, rise of a new dynasty
egalitarianism
a belief in the equality of all people
ethic of struggle
one of mao's principles in the cultural revolution
factionalism
party strife and intrigue; infighting, dissension
fang-shou
a letting-go, tightening up cycle in the chinese political and economic system
floating population
rural migrants seeking job opportunities in cities
foreign devils
the nickname the boxers gave to foreigners from western developed countries, mostly in europe
four modernizations
deng xiaoping's plan to increase industrialization, modernize agriculture, improve military, develop technology and science
free market socialism
socialist market economy with chinese characteristics is the official title of the economic system since the reforms of deng xiaoping and consists of a mixture of state-owned enterprises with an open-market economy
gang of four
jiang qing, zhang chunqiao, yao wenyuan, and wang hongwen, who were arrested and blamed for the faults of the cultural revolution
guanxi
a chinese term meaning "connections" or "relationships" and describes personal ties between individuals based on such things as common birthplace or mutual acquaintances; important factor in china's political and economic life
great leap forward
economic and social plan used in china from 1958 to 1961 which aimed to use china's last population to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a modern industrial society
han chinese
ethnic group native to china, make up about 92 percent of the population
hegemony
the consistent dominance of one state or ideology over others
household responsibility system
the system put into practice in china beginning in the early 1980s in which the major decisions about agricultural production are made by individual farm families based on the profit motive rather than by a people's commune or the government
iron rice bowl
mao's promise of cradle to grave health care, work, and retirement security that has largely disappeared under reform and opening
long march
a 6000-mile, year-long trek of maoand his followers to escape the non-communist guomindang; symbol of communist heroism
mandate of heaven
a political theory of ancient china in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
maoism
distinctly chinese version of communism: inequality resisted, centered on own philosophy, belief in strength of peasants
mass line
a method of leadership that seeks to learn from the masses and immerse the political leadership in the concerns and conditions of the masses, developed by mao zedong during the chinese revolution
mass mobilization
an effort to turn the sheer numbers of the population into an asset; resulted in better motivation, harder work, and less unemployment
middle kingdom
refers to china because the people believed that their land stood between heaven and earth
National Party Congress
body of over 2,000 delegates of the CCP chosen primarily from congresses on lower levels; meets every 5 years to rubberstamp decisions by party leaders; main power is to elect members of the central committee
nomenklatura
the process of filing influential jobs in the state, society, or the economy with people approved and chosen by the CCP
parallel hierarchies
the CCP, the state or government, and the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
the unified military organization of all land, sea, and air forces of the people's republic of china
People's National Congress
top of the government hierarchy where state authority is formally vested; subject to party authority; chooses the president and the vice president of china
plenums
the meetings of the Central Committee of the CCP
politboro
the most important organization within the CCP consisting of two dozen or so leaders in china which approves all major policy and personnel changes
standing committee
7 members chosen from the politboro which are mostly technocrats
Special Economic Zones
SEZs specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment
state corporatism
a political system in which the state requires all members of a particular economic sector to join an officially designated interest group
technocrats
highly educated bureaucrats who make decisions based on their perceptions of technical ideas rather than political ones
Townships and Village Enterprises
TVEs rural factories and businesses that are run by local government and private entrepreneurs
two china's
china and taiwan
hu jintao
current leader of china
hu yaobang
former head of CCP during deng xiaoping; radical reformer
jiang zemin
person who assumed leadership of china after deng xiaoping's death
li peng
former premier and chair of the NPC; the most prominant leader of conservatives
a new socialist countryside
wen jiabao's pledge to narrow the rich-poor gap and to channel more wealth to the villagers and rural migrant workers of china
non governmental organizations
independent groups that influence business through lobbying, publicity, and pressure tactics
one country, two systems
china's policy of blending capitalism and some western freedoms with chinese communism
patron client system
a system that gives political support in exchange for political and economic favors
autonomous regions
provinces that have been granted a certain degree of political and cultural autonomy, or freedom from centralized authority by the government
3rd generation leader
jiang zemin
4th generation leader
current hu-wen administration
private business
chinese category created in 1988 under the control of the NPC
rule of law
law that applies to all citizens and those who govern
state corporatism
a political system in which the state requires all members of a particular economic sector to join an officially designated interest group
sun yat-sen
chinese nationalist revolutionary, founder and leader of the guomindang until his death who attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in china
wen jiabao
china's current premier and head of government
youth league
a youth movement of the people's republic of china for youth between the ages of fourteen and twenty-eight, run by CCP
zhao ziyang
right hand men of deng xiaoping who helped to reform the economy
zhongguo
referring to the group of states in the central plain, the middle kingdom