Terms in this set (87)
the study of normal biological function, from cell to tissue, tissue to organ, and organ to system, as well as how the organism as a whole accomplishes particular tasks essential to life. mechanisms, how function is performed.
the dynamic constancy of the internal environment. keeping our internal environment within a normal range. Changes made via negative feedback loops.
negative feedback loop
from set point, sensor detects the deviation, then activate an effector or to an integrating center to return to the set point.
acting through negative feedback loops but have opposite effects. like shivering and sweating.
positive feedback loops
mechanism to amplify changes, in response to a small change in a particular direction, this would cause the change to become greater and greater.
composed of tissues functioning together for a specific task
a group of cells with a common structure and function.
the structural and functional unit of all living things. smallest unit of life. building blocks of our tissues. new cells arise only from prexisiting cells through cellular reproduction.
composed/bonding of two or more atoms of the same or different elelments.
six basic elements, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur.
building blocks of life. smallest unit of an element, can be broken down further into electrons, protons, and neutrons. center is the nucleus.
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. pieced together from smaller units called atoms. contain carbon and usually hydrogen/oxygen.
94 naturally occuring elements listed with atomic number, symbol and atomic mass.
number in which an atom is identified, also the number of protons, which is equal to the number of electrons.
number of electrons + protons
electric charges of an atom
protons are positive charges, electrons are negative charges, and neutrons are no charge/neutral.
two atoms either share or transfer their electrons from the outer shell.
bond formed between atoms when one or more electrons are completely transfered from one atom to another. produces two ions, cation and anion. the opposite charges of the ions make them stick together "opposites attract"
caused by ionic bond, positive charge and missing electrons
caused by ionic bond, negative charge with gaining electrons.
strongest bond, sharing of electrons. can be shared equally (non polar molecules) and unequally (polar molecules).
weakest bond. only between hydrogen and oxygen/nitrogen. hydrogen gains a slight + charge and oxygen or nitrogen gain a slight - charge pulling the atoms closer together, polar bond.
polar molecules (electrons that are not equally shared), water loving, soluble (dissolve) in water. ions that are electrically charged.
non polar molecules (electrons are equally shared), water fearing, insoluble (cannot be disolved) in water. oil and water do not mix.
how to build up monomers together to create an organic compound. in building up the compound, a molecule of water is released as a side product.
a single molecule of water is used to break down the bond holding two subunits together, breaks it back down to monomers.
"the sugars", contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, CnH2nOn, monoshaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. serve as structural elements in the body or as a quick source of energy. hydrophillic (soluble in water).
simplest of sugars, can't be broken down more, include glucose, galactose, and fructose.
when two monosaccharides join together by a covalent bond to form a double sugar. includes sucrose, lactose, maltose.
when many monosaccharides are covalently bonded together. glycogen "animal starch", joined together by dehydration synthesis.
fats and oils, insoluble in water, hydrophobic, nonpolar, triglycerides, phospholipids and steroids.
1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids. unsaturated and saturated fatty acids.
contain only single bonds between the carbon atoms, tightly packed with neighbors, solid at room temperature (butter, lard).
one or more double bonds between the carbons in the non polar region of the molecule. creates a kink/tail in the molecule, cannot pack in closely together, liquids at room temperature (oils).
1 glycerol and 2 fatty acids and 1 phosphate group (one phosphorous atom bonded to four oxygen atoms), one small hydrophilic head and two hydrophobic tails, major component of plasma membrane, regulates what goes in and out of a cell forms a bilayer with the tails facing eachother.
made of 4 rings containing carbon atoms fused together, hormones.
made from amino acids, more than just muscle, structural(keratin) functional (enzymes), functions include; support, metabolism, transport, defense, regulation, occasionally as an energy source.
protein building blocks, linked together by dehydration synthesis in a big long necklace like chain.
covalent bonds that hold amino acids together.
2 or more amino acids bonded together
a long chain of amino acids.
3-D, primary structure
amino acids are linked towther in the polypeptide chain, imagine a string of beads.
3-D, secondary structure
the string of amino acids becomes coiled or pleated as a result of hydrogen bonding between certain atoms, imagine a slinky.
3-D, tertiary structure
the coiled/pleated polypeptide folds back on itself, imagine twisting a slinky back around on itself.
3-D, quaternary structure
some folded proteins link up with other folded proteins via hydrogen bonds to create a complex. Heat or the wrong pH can unfold a protein (denaturation).
1 phosphate group and 1 sugar and 1 nitrogen containing molecule as a base. DNA and RNA
protiens that function as a catalys, increase the rate of chemical reaction without being changed by the reaction and without changing the nature of the reaction.
deoxyribonucleic acid, two strings of nucleotides held together by hydrogen bonds in a double helix, carries hereditary information in form of genes, bases are; adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, never leaves the nucleus.
ribonucleic acid, single string of nucleotides, functions in protein synthesis, bases are; adenine, guanine, cytosine, and and uracil. complimentary copy of DNA, leaves the nucleus.
adenosine triphosphate, the "energy currency" of the cell.
wound repair/tissue growth and maintenance. produces two daughter cells from one parent cell, occurs in somatic cells.
reporduction, occurs only in the gonads (testes/ovaries), produces gametes (four sperm cells or one mature ovum) from one precursor cell.
semi-permiable boundary between the intracellular and extracellular environments, protective "skin" that regulates communication with other cells and the movement of materials in and out of the cell. made of phospholipid bilayer, contains membrane proteins, has embeded cholesterol for stiffness.
part ofthe cell located inside the plasma membrane but outside the nucleus. contains numerous organells.
fluid portion of the cytoplasm, exclusive of the organelles.
information center, largest organelle and contains the genetic information in the DNA. contains chromatin and nucleolus, creates rbosomes.
tiny folds of the plasma membrane found on the apical surface of some cells of the body, bristle like projections, doesn't move
hair like extensions that protrude from the plasma membrane, movement provided by microtubules.
long whip like extension of the plasma membrane that allows cells to move, use of microtubules also.
intracellular scaffold made of proteins arranged as long threads, microfilaments and microtubules, maintain the cell shape, anchors organelles into place, helps to move organelles along "tracks".
long intricate threads of DNA molecules wound around small proteins called histones.
when a cell reproduces by mitosis/meiosis, the chromatin shrinks on itself, forming the x shaped structure. humans have 23 pairs (46 total chromosomes)
complimentary/temporary copy, carries instructions for making protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. coding for the structure of a protein.
transfers amino acids to the messenger RNA helping to translate the nuceotide base code into an amino acid sequence. delivers amino acids to sites of protein synthesis.
makes up part of the structure of ribosomes.
recycling organells, surrounded by membranes containing digestive enzymes that break down nutrients, cell wastes, bacterial cells, and damaged organells.
process where molecules are brought into the cell from the extracellular environment, creating small compartments called vesicles that then fuse with the lysosome.
programmed cell death, when lysosomes break open causing the death of the cell. example; forming a hand and seperate digits.
"self eating", when the lysosome destroys other organelles.
energy producing organelle, enclosed by two membranes (outer and inner) and seperated by an intermembrane space. produces energy for the cell by using ATP through cellular respiration. Inner mitochondrial membrane has folds, called cristae, that project into the central area, known as the matrix.
manufacturing organelles, "protein factories", where proteins are assembled, composed of rRNA and proteins; has two seperate pieces, found free or bound. protein synthesis.
interconnected network of membrane tubules located just outside the nucleus, ion storage and breakdown of certain types of molcules and lipid synthesis,
also called granular, ribosomes attach to the surface, protein fed into rer where it is modified, also functions in the secretion of proteins to the cell exterior.
flattened sacs of membrane arranged like a stack of pancakes, recieves and modifies proteins/lipids manufactured by the er. fedex, transporting organelles, accept and modifies the proteins and lipids made in the er.
process of a ribosome
tiny vesicles bud off of the RER, carrying proteins, they fuse with the golgi, proteins are modified as they pass from one sac to the next, when a protein leaves the golgi it buds off becoming enclosed in a vesicle then it may go to the cell surface for secretion or elsewhere withing the cells.
cell life cycle
the sequence of events that extend from the creation of a cell to its division into two daughter cells. includes interphase, and M phase
90% of life cycle of cell, three periods, 1) G1: synthesis of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, growth 2) S: cell's DNA is copied by replication 3) G2: additional protein synthesis; cell moves toward M phase. looks like a fried egg.
mitotic phase, two parts; division of the nucleus and division of the cytoplasm.
PMAT, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase.
chromosomes starte to shrink/condense, nuclear envelope begins to disintegrate, centrosomes move to opposite ends of the cell, microtubules emerge from the centrosomes and attach to the kinetochores of the sister chromatids. mitotic spindle begins assembling. looks like fried egg with cheese blobs.
spindle is fully formed, sister chromatids are attached to microtubules on opposite ends of the cell, chromosomes are alligned acoss the cell's equator. looks like lining up in the middle.
centromeres of each chromosome seperate and move in opposite directions, each chromatid is referred to as an independent chromosome. looks like they are being pulled apart but not seperated.
opposite of prophase, the chromosomes at each pole can decondense and a nuclear envelope forms around each, spindle disappears, now two sets of chromosomes and enters into cytokenesis. looks like it's almost split. nucleus appears.
splitting of cytoplasm, cleavage furrow squeezes the middle into seperate the two daughter cells, each cell ends up with a nucleus, cytoplasm with organelles, and a plasma membrane.
concentration with a higher H+ than water. any number on the pH scale lower than 7. a molecule that can release protons (H+) into a solution.
basic or alkaline
concentration with a lower H+, any number on the pH scale higher than 7. a compound that combines with H+ and thereby removes it from a solution, "proton acceptor"
concentrations of H+ and OH- are equal in water, a 7 on a pH scale.