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76 terms

Chemistry

STUDY
PLAY
Life
About 25 chemical
96% - C, O, H, N
4% - Ca, P, K, S, Na, Cl, Mg
Others are trace elements (<0.01%)
are all requirements of ____?
Elements
What combines to form compounds?
Polymers
Many large molecules in biological systems are ________.
Monomers
Polymers are long chain-like molecules made up of repeating units called ________.
Dimers
2 monomers joined together = ______.
Trimers
3 monomers joined together = _______.
Polymer
4+ monomers joined together = _______.
Dehydration synthesis
An anabolic building reaction in which monomers are linked together to make a larger molecule occurs via __________ _________ or condensation.
Hydrolysis
A catabolic reaction in which polymers are broken down into individual monomers occurs via __________ or cleavage.
Saccharides
Carbohydrates are made up of monomers called _________.
Carbohydrates
_________ are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharides
There are 3 classes of carbohydrates. One saccharide is a ________, two saccharides is a ________, and many sacchardies joined together are called ______.
Monosaccharides
What are also known as reducing sugars and simple sugars and consist of 5 or 6 carbon atoms joined in a ring?
Monosaccharides
What tastes sweet and are easily soluble in water? And are used for short term energy production?
Monosaccharides
Glucose, galactose, fructose, ribose deoxyribose are all examples of?
Disaccharides
What tastes sweet when added to H2O and is used as a short term energy source?
Disaccharides
sucrose = table sugar
glucose + fructose
Lactose = sugar in milk
glucose + galactose
Maltose = grain products
glucose + glucose
are all major _________.
Dehydration synthesis
When 2 hydrogens and an oxygen atom are eliminated when two glucose molecules (monosaccharides) are joined to make a single molecule of maltose, it is a anabolic condensation reaction called _____ _________.
Hydrolysis reaction
In order to breakdown a disaccharide, water is need in order for it to be broken down into its constituent monosaccharides. This is called a ___ ____.
Polysaccharides
What has various biological functions, including long term energy storage and structural roles?
Glycogen
What is used for long term energy storage in animals?
Glycogen
What is The ONLY complex carbohydrate found in human tissues?
Glycogen
What is synthesized primarily by the liver after meals?
Glycogen
What is stored primarily in the skeletal muscles and liver?
Glycogen
What is catabolized to glucose in response to low blood sugar levels?
Starch
What is long term energy (sugar) storage in plants, stored in tubers and specialized storage organs, and degraded to sucrose for transport when needed
Cellulose
What provides a structural role in plant cell walls, is tough and insoluble, cannot be digested by humans and provides dietary fiber or roughage?
Chitin
What provides a structural role in arthropod exoskeletons and fungi and is very hard and waterproof!
Conjugated
Carbohydrates that are bound to lipid or protein are ______.
Glycolipids
What's in the external surface of cell membrane?
Glycoproteins
What's in the external surface of cell membrane and mucus of respiratory and digestive tracts?
Proteoglycans
What's in the gels that hold cells and tissues together, joint lubrication, and rubbery texture of cartilage?
Hydrophobic
The ability to be insoluble in water is called:
Lipids
_____ are composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.
Triglycerides
This lipid is for long term energy storage.
Phosopholipids
This lipid is for primary membrane components.
Steroids and cholesterol
These lipids are for hormone and membrane components.
Eicosanoids
These lipids are chemical messengers.
Waxes
These lipids are for waterproofing and protection.
Fatty acids
What can be saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated?
Fats
Which triglycerides are solid at room temperature and are from animals?
Oils
Which tryglycerides are liquid at room temperature and are often from plants?
Tryglycerides
What functions as:
long term energy storage
thermal insulation
filling spaces
binding organs/tissues together
and protection/cushioning?
T
90% of fats in foods are triglycerides. T or F.
Glycerol, fatty acids
The glyeride's molecule is made up of 2 components. A head made up of _____ and a tail made up of ___ ____.
Phospholipids
What are the main components of cell membranes?
Membranes
What compartmentalizes cells and provides boundaries between cells?
Phospholipids
______ are lipids which contain a phosphate group and 2 fatty acids.
Polar
A ____ or hydrophilic phospholipid is a phosphate group and a nitrogen containing group attached to glycerol.
Non-polar
A ___-_____ or hydrophobic phospholipid is 2 fatty acid tails.
Steroids
All ________ are derived from cholesterol and have the same basic molecular pattern.
Cholesterol
_______ is important in cell membranes and it is a precursor for
Vitamin D, many hormones and bile salts.
Steroid
_____ hormones play an important role in sexual development and reproduction.
Anabolic
______ steroids are used for medical uses that include treatments for anemia, breast cancer, osteoporosis and some muscle diseases.
Eicosanoids
_______ are derived from arachidonic acid (fatty acid) and are are responsible for hormone-like signals between cells.
Prostaglandins
_____ are produced in all tissues and have a role in inflammation, blood clotting, hormone action, labor contractions, blood vessel diameter.
Bile acids
What are steroids that aid in fat digestion and nutrient absorption?
Proteins
What is the most diverse group of organic macromolecules?
Amino acids
Proteins are polymers of subunits known as ____ ___.
20
Living things use the same __ amino acids to make all their proteins.
Protein
When making a _____, the amino group from one amino acid and the carboxyl group from a second amino acid come together and molecule of water is eliminated and a peptide bond is formed.
Peptide
What is a polymer of 2 or more amino acids?
Enzyme
Many ____ names end in -ase.
Enzymes
These proteins are inside cells and outside cells in places like your blood stream.
Enzymes
____ make bonds by joining molecules together, break bonds by splitting molecules such as digestive enzymes, and change the structure of molecules.
Substrate
Each enzyme has a specific job and the substance that an enzyme works on are called its ____.
Catalysts
Enzymes are _____, they accelerate reactions or enable them to occur under conditions they normally couldn't.
Active site
The ___ ___ is a specific section of the protein molecule where the substrate binds to the enzyme.
Coenzymes
Vitamins are often ____ that help enzymes to function.
Nucleic acids
____ _____ are polymers made up of monomers known as nucleotides.
Nucleic acids
DNA and RNA are examples of ___ _____.
Nucleic acids
____ ____ store and transfer genetic information.
Nucleotides
Individual ______ have important roles such as energy transfer and cell signaling.
Nucleotides
Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil are bases in ___.
___ is genetic material with a single gene, which contains the information to make a single protein, can consist of a chain of over 6000 nucleotides .
DNA
What is the energy that all life needs?
ATP