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Modalities Final: Ultrasound
Terms in this set (99)
what does ERA stand for?
effective radiating area
what does BNR stand for?
beam nonuniformity ratio
the ERA is always ______ than the crystal and soundhead
the ______ is the surface area of soundhead that transmits a sound wave from the crystal to the tissues
what does SPI stand for?
spatial peak intensity
what does SAI stand for?
spatial average intensity
___:___ is optimal BNR but is impossible
___:___ is unacceptable BNR and can cause damage
___:___ is the goal of BNR
the law of ______ states that the more energy absorbed by the superficial tissues, the less remains to be transmitted to underlying tissues
what are 2 things that determine the quality of the crystal?
BNR is an indicator of the variability of ______ with an ultrasound beam
BNR = ______ / ______
a ______ is an area where tissue becomes overheated from too much energy too quickly
what does PAMBNR stand for?
peak area of the maximum beam nonuniformity ratio
duty cycle = ______ / ______
what does TAI stand for?
temporal average intensity
what does TPI stand for?
temporal peak intensity
______ is the % of time that ultrasound is generated over 1 pulse period
TAI = ______ x ______
therapeutic ultrasound frequency ranges from ____ to ___ MHz
most older machines are preset at ___ MHz
power is measured in ______
SAI = ______ / ______
ERA is measured in _____
is ultrasound is produced at a power of 8 watts and ERA of soundhead is 4cm2, then SAI would be ____ W/cm2
using a frequency of ___ MHz is useful in treating patients with a high % of subcutaneous fat
if you are treating the soleus or piriformis, you should set it to ___ MHz
when using US at 3 MHz, significant heat increases at ____ cm in human muscle have been measured
when using US at 1 MHz, depths can go from about _____ cm
the magnitude and rate of absorption increases as frequency ______
size of treatment area also affect magnitude of ______
power is a function of both pulse ______ and pulse ______
______ is the rate at which energy is being delivered per unit area
if the power output is constant, increasing the size of the soundhead will ______ SAI
WHO recommends ____ W/cm2 as a safe limit for therapeutic ultrasound
an SAI of ____ W/cm2 or greater can destroy tissue surgically
temperatures greater than _____°F can cause tissue damage
if intensity is less than _____ W/cm2, the intensity is too low to produce a tissue temperature increase and only non-thermal effects will occur
in human muscle which is quite vascular supply, 1 MHz at 1 W/cm2 increases tissue temperature on average by _____°F per minute
in tissues with poor vascular supply, 1 MHz at 1 W/cm2 increases tissue temperature on average by _____°F per minute
in human muscle which is quite vascular supply, 3 MHz at 1 W/cm2 increases tissue temperature on average by _____°F per minute
the treatment area is usually ____ times the size of the ERA of the crystal
the treatment area is usually ____ times the size of the soundhead surface
if the soundhead is lifted above ____°, a large percentage of energy will be reflected
where does reflection of ultrasound occur?
what are the 3 main types of coupling mediums for ultrasound?
gels, water, gel pads
a ______ facilitates the transmission by decreasing impedance at the air-skin interface
______ are a coupling medium used for direct application
______ is a coupling medium used for immersion technique
______ is a coupling technique used over bony prominences
if thermal effects are the goal when doing immersion, you should increase intensity by possibly as much as _____%
when doing immersion, you need to use water at least as warm as core temperature, which is _____°F
the movement of the soundhead should be about _____ cm/second
when doing the immersion technique, move soundhead parallel to surface being treated at a distance of _____ cm
what are two instances when immersion technique should be used?
soundhead is bigger than area to be treated, bony prominences
list 6 specific treatment parameters that should be recorded:
frequency, intensity, mode, type of coupling medium, area treated, treatment length
______ is the formation and growth of gas bubbles by accumulation of dissolved gas in the medium
______ cavitation is when bubbles expand and contract in response to regularly repeated pressure changes over many acoustic cycles
______ cavitation is when considerable tissue damage can occur when gas bubbles expand then collapse rapidly, resulting in microexplosion
the minimal energy density for non-thermal effects is _____J
what are the goals for US treatment on chronic injuries?
increase blood flow, decrease pain
in rats, non-thermal US ______ blood vessel development
in rats, non-thermal US increases strength of incisional wounds and increases ______ deposition
to treat bone with US, you need to use a really ______ intensity pulsed current
heat from US treatment helps bring ______ into the injured area
tendon and deeper muscle cool at a ______ rate then superficial muscle
______ is using US to help move a topical medication into the tissues
therapeutic ultrasound intensity ranges from ____ to ___ W/cm2
the crystal is the ______
the soundhead is the ______
the ______ converts electrical energy into acoustic energy
the ______ transfers the acoustic energy to the body
the ______ produces a specific frequency electrical current for the crystal and also has the control panel
what is the most durable material that makes a soundhead?
the ______ is the housing for the crystal and soundhead
a ______ wave is in both solids and liquids
a ______ wave is only in solids
compressions are ______ molecular density/pressure and are produced when the crystal ______
rarefactions are ______ molecular density/pressure and are produced when the crystal ______
the higher the frequency of the sound waves emitted, the ______ sound will spread out
3 MHz frequency is transmitted _____ cm deep
is the rate of absorption faster with a frequency of 1 MHz or 3 MHz?
when going from high density to low density tissue, speed ______
when going form low to high density tissue, speed ______
______ is a decrease in energy
as sound waves pass through various tissues, ______ occurs
______ is the bouncing off of tissues or scattering
in order from low density to high density, list the 8 things:
ultrasound penetrates through tissues ______ in water content
ultrasound is absorbed in tissues ______ in protein
ultrasound ______ off bone
ultrasound is ______ at joints
peak intensities of only ____ W have been shown to damage tissue
the ______ is the area of the crystal that produces the peak intensity
with a pulsed current, the average intensity output over time ______
______ describes the power of the ultrasound energy over a given period of time
_____ is the same in both modes
_____ is less in the pulsed mode
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