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history 201-D midterm son mai spring 18'
Terms in this set (178)
floating Aztec gardens consisting of a large barge woven from reeds, filled with dirt and floating on the water, allowing for irrigation
geographic area stretching from north o panama up to the desert of central mexico. they were polythestic
the ancient land bridge linking asia and north america
the mother of mesoamerican cultures; coast of mexico (1200-400BC) , MAJOR civilization . 70% humidity
(1200-1521) 1300, they settled in th valley of mexico. grew corn, worshipped many gods. they believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. practiced human sacrifices.
an incan device for recording informatio, consisting of variously colored threads knotted in different ways
two strains of the bubonic plague that simultaneously swept western Europe in the fourteenth century, causing the death of nearly half the population
belief and worship of more than one god.
"lord" or "ruler" pacific coast, most highly developed and complex society. Further to the south , quipu & Mita
Mesoamerican culture that had strong ties to Teotihuacan. The Maya's architectural and mathematical contributions were significant. Flourishing from roughly 2000 BCE to 900 CE in what is now Mexico, Belize, Honduras, and Guatemala, the Maya perfected the calendar and written language the Olmec had begun.
a society in which women have political power
Incan relay runners used to send messages over great distances
the Incan labor tax, with each family donating time and work to communal projects
starts of many peasants under feudalism, condition of bondage
social arrangement in which serfs and knights provided labor and military service to noble lords, receiving protection and land use in return
the seasons dictate the rhythm of life
special ceremonies of the Church, marked every stage of life, from birth to maturation, marriage, and burial, and brought people into the church on a regular basis -TO ENSURE SALVATION
the sacred book of Islam, written by the prophet Muhammad in the seventh century
a series of military expeditions made by Christian Europeans to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims in the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries
Spain's nearly eight-hundred-year holy war against Islam, which ended in 1492
campaign by the Catholic Church to root out heresy, especially among converted Jews and Muslims- hunted people who weren't catholic
North African Muslims (Moors) from the Kingdom of Granada driven out to Africa
also in 1492, after six years of lobbying, a Genoese sailor named Christopher Columbus persuaded the monarchs to fund his expedition to the Far East.In August 1492, Columbus set sail with his three small caravels (Figure 4). After a voyage of about three thousand miles lasting six weeks, he landed on an island in the Bahamas named Guanahani by the native Lucayans. He promptly christened it San Salvador, the name it bears today. - exploring the Far East by going west
the practice of having more than one wife at a time
a system of servitude in which people are treated as personal property to be bought and sold
n which previously isolated groups—Africans, Native Americans, and Europeans—first came into contact with each other, sometimes with disastrous results.-trade around the world
henry the navigator
,Portuguese mariners successfully navigated an eastward (carivail) . - patron of exploration
the island in the Caribbean, present-day Haiti and Dominican Republic, where Columbus first landed and established a Spanish colony
conquered the Aztecs
conquered the incans
probanzo de marito
Columbus's 1493 letter—or probanza de mérito (proof of merit)—describing his "discovery" of a New World did much to inspire excitement in Europe.
fransicso vasquez de coronado
tried to find the 7 cities and failed
a split or schism among European Christians
was a German Catholic monk who - protested the catholic indulgences
documents that absolved sinners of their errant behavior
branch of Protestantism started by John Calvin,- don't need a church structure / personal relationship with god
church of england
Catholic Church in England occurred in the 1530s, when Henry VIII established a new, Protestant state religion. Wanted his own son
seek to purify the Church of England - bible id the only authority (pilgrims)
sea captains to whom the home government had given permission to raid the enemy at will
"the lost colony"- people get homesick.
a business entity in which investors provide the capital and assume the risk in order to reap significant returns- crowd funding .
most successful joint stock company, found their wealth in tobacco
One of the first groups of Puritans to move to North America,
The Pilgrims differed from other Puritans in their insistence on separating from what they saw as the corrupt Church of England
.- ship that sends the pilgrims
samuel de champlain
looking for a northwest passage , claim it for French so they could collect the toal.
dutch east india company
claimed New York , allowed merchants to come and do trades
legal rights to native labor
bartoleme de las casas
priest wrote a protest to the Spanish government
Spain's reputation as bloodthirsty conquistadors
one of the primary crops of the Americas, which required a tremendous amount of labor to cultivate- cash crop
belief that colonies should do trade with the mother country
the transformation of something—for example, an item of ritual significance—into a commodity with monetary value- anything that can be sold
the movement of plants, animals, and diseases across the Atlantic due to European exploration of the Americas- form of globalization
a disease that Europeans accidentally brought to the New World, killing millions of Indians, who had no immunity to the disease
raids or wars that tribes waged in eastern North America in order to replace members lost to smallpox and other diseases
colonial system requiring Indian towns to supply workers for the colonizers
fort caroline(ribald island)
- Spain settlement
oldest settlement in the US
the native people of Florida, whom the Spanish displaced with the founding of St. Augustine, the first Spanish settlement in North America
labored to bring about a spiritual conquest by converting the Pueblo to Catholicism.
an uprising of most of the indigenous Pueblo people against the Spanish colonizers in the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, present day New Mexico- drives Spanish out.
becomes New York ,
dutch west india company
slave trading )- find cash crops through patroonships
large tracts of land and governing rights granted to merchants by the Dutch West India Company in order to encourage colonization
members of the Society of Jesus, an elite Catholic religious order founded in the 1540s to spread Catholicism and to combat the spread of Protestantism- spreading religion and education
a labor contract that promised young men, and sometimes women, money and land after they worked for a set period time . Unpaid labor .
a system in which parcels of land were granted to settlers who could pay their own way to Virginia
Economic stability came from the lucrative cultivation of tobacco
(1609-1614) resulted not only from the English colonists' intrusion onto Powhatan land, but also from their refusal to follow native protocol by giving gifts. English actions infuriated and insulted the Powhatan.- they gave up pocohantas.
the daughter of a Powhatan headman named Wahunsonacook, and gave her in marriage to Englishman John Rolfe
people of protesting the colonial system
First Puritan colony/ Massachusetts colony - set up by puritans
massachtessets bay colony
"city upon a hill"
An agreement reached by the Pilgrims on the ship the Mayflower in 1620, just before they landed at Plymouth Rock.
The first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, credited for it (Boston)
Puritan minister who founded the colony of Rhode Island as a place of complete religious toleration.-
presented a challenge to the male ministers' authority. Because of her beliefs and defiance, Puritan authorities tried and convicted her of holding false beliefs. In 1638, she was excommunicated and banished from the colony.
king phillips war
a massive regional conflict that was nearly successful in pushing the English out of New England.- fighting over land
royal african company
an English mercantile company set up by the Stuart family and City of London merchants to trade along the west coast of Africa.- set up to import slaves
the perilous, often deadly transatlantic crossing of slave ships from the African coast to the New World- slaves were brought over
groups of runaway slaves who resisted recapture and eked a living from the land
shell beads used in ceremonies and as jewelry and currency
light, long-barreled European gun
sin hans sloane
- botanist , try to find trade good but records plant and animal life to see what has medicinal value
the colonies King Charles II established or supported during the Restoration (the Carolinas, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania)
the period from 1649 to 1660 when England had no king
colonies granted by the king to a trusted individual, family, or group
the son of Sir William Penn, and was an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker, and founder of the State of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the future Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
a series of English mercantilist laws enacted between 1651 and 1696 in order to control trade with the colonies
society of friends
Quakers are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
dominion of england
james II's consolidated New England colony, made up of all the colonies from New Haven to Massachusetts and later New York and New Jersey- led to protest
the laxness with which the English crown enforced the Navigation Acts in the eighteenth century
spilled over into the colonies. In 1689, Bostonians overthrew the government of the Dominion of New England and jailed Sir Edmund Andros as well as other leaders of the regime
Protestants who did not conform to the doctrines or practices of the Church of England
- first slave rebellion in the US.
new yore conspiracy trails of 1741
- arsinist on the lose and they blame the slaves
don't have a title but you own land
first great awakening
the British Atlantic experienced an outburst of Protestant revivalism
an English Anglican cleric who was one of the founders of Methodism and the evangelical movement.- don't need a church to have religion
the Age of Reason, was an intellectual and cultural movement in the eighteenth century that emphasized reason over superstition and science over blind faith
a fraternal society founded in the early eighteenth century that advocated Enlightenment principles of inquiry and tolerance
an Enlightenment-era belief in the existence of a supreme being—specifically, a creator who does not intervene in the universe—representing a rejection of the belief in a supernatural deity who interacts with humankind- believe that god is hands off
a member of Parliament and advocate of social reform, petitioned King George II for a charter to start a new colony.
the only government-funded colonial project.
age of reason
french and indian war
the last eighteenth-century imperial struggle between Great Britain and France, leading to a decisive British victory; this war lasted from 1754 to 1763 and was also called the Seven Years' War
treaty of paris (1763)
The war continued until 1763,ends the French and Indian war
- believe in britsh crown American colonists who remained loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolutionary War.
-a person who vigorously supports their country and is prepared to defend it against enemies or detractors.-idependence
frontiersmen of Scots-Irish origin from along the Susquehanna River in central Pennsylvania who formed a vigilante group to retaliate in 1763 against local American Indians in the aftermath of the French and Indian War and Pontiac's Rebellion.
proclamation 0f 1763
issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War, which forbade all settlement west of a line drawn along the Appalachian Mountains.
currency of 1764
Purpose was to:Extend the provisions of the Currency Act of 1751 (New England Currency Act) Control the printing and use of colonial paper money (Bills of Credit)
sugar act of 1764
law passed by the British Parliament in 1764 raising duties on foreign refined sugar imported by the colonies so as to give British sugar growers in the West Indies a monopoly on the colonial market.
vice admirably courts
British royal courts without juries that settled disputes occurring at sea- in England
indirect taxes vs. direct taxes
indirect: a tax imposed on businesses, rather than directly on consumers
direct: a tax that consumers pay directly, rather than through merchants' higher prices
Under this act, anyone who used or purchased anything printed on paper had to buy a revenue stamp for it
The Quartering Act of 1765 addressed the problem of housing British soldiers stationed in the American colonies.
roadened the protest against the Stamp Act, giving women a new and active role in the political dissent of the time.- merchants won't sale goods from the English
The Townshend Revenue Act of 1767 placed duties on various consumer items like paper, paint, lead, tea, and glass.
failed as a brewer and newspaper publisher before becoming one of the Independence movement's most celebrated leaders and statesmen
in Massachusetts in 1768, Samuel Adams wrote a letter
a confrontation between a crowd of Bostonians and British soldiers on March 5, 1770, which resulted in the deaths of five people, including Crispus Attucks, the first official casualty in the war for independence
a very significant event in the lead-up to the American Revolution. Burned ships
committee of correspondence
colonial extralegal shadow governments that convened to coordinate plans of resistance against the British
tea act of 1773
the act was a straightforward order of economic protectionism for a British tea firm, the East India Company, that was on the verge of bankruptcy.
boston tea party
a raid on three British ships in Boston Harbor (December 16, 1773) in which Boston colonists, disguised as Indians, threw the contents of several hundred chests of tea into the harbor as a protest against British taxes on tea and against the monopoly granted the East India Company.
the name American Patriots gave to the Coercive Acts and the Quebec Act
first contintenal congress
a direct challenge to Lord North and British authority in the colonies.
a Massachusetts plan of resistance to the Intolerable Acts that formed the basis of the eventual plan adopted by the First Continental Congress for resisting the British, including the arming of militias and the adoption of a widespread non-importation, non-exportation, and non-consumption agreement
gen. thomas gage
- military governor
many of whom were veterans of the French and Indian War, played an important role in the war for independence.
lexington and concord
he first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War.
the high ground across the Charles River from Boston, a strategic site that gave the rebel militias an advantage since they could train their cannons on the British.- disarm the people of Boston
the decree signed by Lord Dunmore, the royal governor of Virginia, which proclaimed that any slaves or indentured servants who fought on the side of the British would be rewarded with their freedom
North Carolina's declaration of rebellion against Great Britain
he author of an anonymous pamphlet, first published in January 1776, entitled Common Sense.
citizens in the republic would determine who would represent them, and decide other issues, on the basis of majority rule.
also served as a social philosophy guiding the conduct of the Patriots in their struggle against the British Empire.
where it helped convince many to reject monarchy and the British Empire in favor of independence and a republican form of government.
declaration of independence
written primarily by Jefferson, included a long list of grievances against King George III and laid out the foundation of American government as a republic in which the consent of the governed would be of paramount importance.
commander in chief of the British forces in America, amassed thirty-two thousand troops on Staten Island in June and July 1776. His brother, Admiral Richard Howe, controlled New York Harbor.
second conditional colonies
members approved the creation of a professional Continental Army with Washington as commander in chief
battle of saratoga
marked the climax of the Saratoga campaign, giving a decisive victory to the Americans over the British in the American Revolutionary War.
German mercenaries hired by Great Britain to put down the American rebellion
marquis de lafayette
known simply as Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War.
brought the British success at first, but thanks to the leadership of George Washington and General Nathanael Greene and the crucial assistance of French forces, the Continental Army defeated the British at Yorktown, effectively ending further large-scale operations during the war.
gen. george cornwallis
subdue the rest of South Carolina.
battle of yorktown
the Virginia port where British General Cornwallis surrendered to American forces
treaty pf paris
the Parliament of Great Britain voted to end further military operations against the rebels and to begin peace negotiations. Support for the war effort had come to an end, and British military forces began to evacuate the former American colonies in 1782.
state-wide acts that made it legal for state governments to seize Loyalists' property
he paper currency that the Continental government printed to fund the Revolution
rests on the practice of dynastic succession, in which the monarch's child or other relative inherits the throne.
a system of government characterized by majority rule
where the majority of citizens have the power to make decisions binding upon the whole.
the politically and economically elite revolutionary class that wanted to limit political participation to a few powerful families
favored broadening the popular participation in political life and pushed for democracy.
served as a role model par excellence for the new republic, embodying the exceptional talent and public virtue prized under the political and social philosophy of republicanism.
the legal status of married women in the United States, which included complete legal and economic dependence on husbands
Phillis Wheatley (Figure 3) was born in Africa in 1753 and sold as a slave to the Wheatley family of Boston; her African name is lost to posterity.
owned more than one hundred slaves, of whom he freed only a few either during his lifetime or in his will (Figure 4). He thought blacks were inferior to whites, dismissing Phillis Wheatley by arguing, "Religion indeed has produced a Phillis Wheatley; but it could not produce a poet." White slaveholders took their female slaves as mistresses, as most historians agree that Jefferson did with one of his slaves, Sally Hemings. Together, they had several children.
by which slaveholders freed their slaves, provided one pathway from bondage. Slaveholders in Virginia freed some ten thousand slaves.
checks and balance
northwest ordinance of 1787
articles of confederation
new jersey plan
federalists vs. anti-federalists
bill of rights
sons and daughter of liberty
artisans, shopkeepers, and small-time merchants who opposed the Stamp Act and considered themselves British patriots
-well-born British colonial women who led a non-importation movement against British goods
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