Ottoman Empire 3/2/18

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Who does "The Turks" refer to and where did they originate?
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~Osman sought to expand his territory (inherited from his father), and called for holy war against the weakening Byzantine Empire (which was right on the edge of his territory, making it a natural expansion of his own territory).
~Ghazi (religious warriors) travelled to Osman's land to help.
~Many Turkish warriors were also migrating westward to escape Mongol domination.
~Osman was an able leader and administrator and he was able to channel the energies of the Ghazi (religious warriors) and Turkish warriors against the Christian Byzantium.
~Osman's campaigns against Byzantine empire were successful, capturing land and wealthy cities throughout northwest Anatolia. These successes strengthened his rule (because they expanded his territory and added to his resources).
~Osman also captured land to east along the Black Sea, and was poised to control the all-important trade from Black to Mediterranean Sea, but he lacked naval strength to do so.
~After the last Seljuk Sultan died (to whom Osman owed loyalty for the land grant to Osman's father that Osman later inherited), Osman waged fierce warfare against other Emirs (leaders) of the Anatolia area. He wanted to expand his realm and control to all of the Anatolian peninsula. (Remember that he waited until the last Seljuk Sultan died before attempting to conquer the rest of Anatolia out of a sense of loyalty)
~ In 1299, Osman captured the city of Konya, and established his residence there. It became the capital of Osman's growing empire (later the capital was moved to Bursa then to Constantinople), and this date constitutes the official founding of the Ottoman (Osman) Empire.
~after Osman died, his heirs continued to conquer, and the Ottoman Empire came one of the largest and lengthiest (624 years!)
The role of women in Ottoman Society~women had fairly significant role in Ottoman Empire ~In nomadic and pastoral societies (daily life is centered upon tending of herds or flocks) women play a large role, and Ottomans retained this in their control of the household and influence over the men in their lives. ~did not play prominent public role in politics or business ~did have specific legal rights - to own and inherit property, and they could not be forced into marriage. ~non-Muslim women had even greater freedom in the Empire since they weren't subject to strict Islamic laws governing female actions and behaviorOttoman Society Social Structure - how did religion and vocation (job) play a role~not dictated by wealth. Being wealthy or a successful business man did not mean upper class. ~generally, the Muslim born had greater opportunities and were seen as higher than non-Muslims, or converts ~after Muslim born, was converts to Islam, followed by Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrian (those found in "Millets", which means religious communities), and slaves. ~generally, RULING CLASS was made up of Muslims or converts, which placed them in the highest positions in society. Merchants were next, followed by artisans then peasants.What were JanissariesSpecial troops that were essentially slave soldiers that were acquired through the "Devshirme System"What was Devshirme SystemDevshirme system was a sort of tax levied on Christian communities in the Ottoman controlled Balkan area. Christian families were required to turn over sons to be converted to Islam, and trained in the Ottoman armyLives of the Janissary troops (originally, before the mid-1700s)~originally, Janissary troops lived and trained together in a barracks until retirement age. Discipline was strict, and living conditions were almost monastic (very plain/simple). ~Janissary soldiers could be identified easily since they were forbidden to grow a beard (they could have a mustache)Why do many believe the Ottoman Empire to have created the first modern army?The Janissaries became an elite fighting force. They were paid a regular salary, and the Ottoman Empire became one of the first states to maintain a professional standing army.What happened to recruited Janissaries who weren't "cut out" to be soldiers?They were educated to be civil servants in the government. Several even rose to the position of Grand Vizier (prime minister of the Ottoman Sultan)Janissary troops by the mid-1700s~things changed from the original lives of Janissary troops ~few lived in barracks until retirement ~many married and had children while serving (this was originally forbidden) ~some even took up other trades ~nearly all wanted their sons to become Janissaries. ~position of Janissary was desirable as it led to economic and social advancement. ~Devshirme no longer functioned as a tax, but as a system to train Janissaries and a class of powerful Janissaries determined that the position become inherentWho was Suleyman and what titles did he have?Suleyman was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire who ruled for 46 years during the 1500s. He was referred to as Suleyman the Magnificent and the LawgiverWhat kind of ruler was Suleyman man and what were his main accomplishments?Suleyman was a fair ruler - he was well prepared for the crown since as a boy he was given two provinces to govern ~when he had a conquest he treated his captives well ~victories made him quite wealthy and he lived in luxury ($80 mil/yr., called "the Magnificent) ~he greatly expanded Ottoman Empire from its base in Modern Turkey ~improved his peoples' lives, rebuilding water systems at the Mecca and Jerusalem (holy sites visited by pilgrims), built beautiful palaces and mosques; also poetry, history, science and Ottoman culture flourishedWhy was Ottoman Sultan Suleyman renowned as the LawgiverHe tasked an educated slave with compiling a new code of laws, establishing standard penalties throughout the empire for such crimes as robbery and murder; it also sought to remove corruption from government to ensure that local political officials rose on the basis of merit and not bribery (he was very fair)