Friedland APES Chapter 9

Permeable layers of rock and sediment that contain groundwater in many small spaces.
Unconfined Aquifer
Water can flow easily in and out of the aquifer. Porous rock covered by soil
Confined Aquifer
Aquifers covered by an impermeable and confining layer impeding water flow in or out.
Water Table
Uppermost aquifer layer where water fully saturates the rock or soil.
Groundwater Recharge
Water from precipitation percolates through soil and into aquifer. If confined, can't recharge.
Water from some aquifers naturally comes up, natural source of freshwater
Artesian Wells
Drilled hole in a confined aquifer releases pressure and pushes water up.
Cone of Depression
Area where there's no longer any groundwater, caused by well overuse, eventually will go dry.
Saltwater intrusion
Lessened pressure from over-pumping so salt water infiltrates and makes well water salty.
Land adjacent to river where excess water spreads onto.
Lakes with low productivity because of little nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen.
Lakes with moderate levels of productivity
Lakes with high levels of productivity
Impermeable Surfaces
Pavement, buildings, etc. Doesn't allow water penetration, water then runs into sewers and streams. Excess water causes floods.
Enlarged bank on each side of river to prevent flooding
Similar to levees but to prevent ocean waters from flooding coasts that are under sea level.
Barrier that runs across a river/stream to control water flow
Large body of water stored behind a dam. Held for consumption, generating electricity, flood control, or recreation.
Fish Ladders
Sets of stairs with water flowing over them to have fish migrate despite dams.
Canals or ditches used to carry water between locations. Transports water to dry areas.
Removes salt from salt water to make fresh water.
Desalination method. Seawater flows in, heated to create steam, cool seawater in condensing coil causes steam to condense. Brine and fresh water then flows out.
Reverse Osmosis
Desalination method. Seawater flows in, pressure applied, water goes through semipermeable membrane, salt can't. Water and brine flows out.
Hydroponic Agriculture
Cultivation under greenhouse conditions with roots in nutrient rich solution, and not soil.
Water footprint
The total daily per capita use of freshwater.
Gray water
Wastewater from baths, showers, bathrooms, and washing machines.
Contaminated water
Wastewater from toilets, kitchen sinks, and dishwashers.

Flickr Creative Commons Images

Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through
Click to see the original works with their full license.