Friedland APES Chapter 13

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Energy conservation
Reducing the consumption of energy by using less of an energy service. This can be achieved either by using energy more efficiently (using less energy for a constant service) or by reducing the amount of energy used (for example, by driving less).
Tiered rate system
A billing system used by some electric companies in which customers pay higher rates as their use go up.
Peak demand
The greatest quantity of energy used at any one time.
Passive solar design
Construction designed to take advantage of solar radiation without active technology.
Thermal mass
A property of a building material that allows it to maintain heat or cold.
Potentially renewable
An energy source that can be regenerated indefinitely as long as it is not overharvested.
Nondepletable
An energy source that cannot be used up.
Renewable
In energy management, an energy source that is either potentially renewable or nondepletable.
Biofuel
Liquid fuel created from processed or refined biomass.
Modern carbon
Carbon in biomass that was recently in the atmosphere.
Fossil carbon
Carbon in fossil fuels.
Carbon neutral
An activity that does not change atmospheric CO2 concentration.
Net removal
The process of removing more that is replace by growth, typically used when referring to carbon.
Ethanol
Alcohol made by converting starches and sugars from plant material into alcohol and CO2.
Biodiesel
A diesel substitute produced by extracting and chemically altering oil from plants.
Flex-fuel vehicle
A vehicle that runs on either gasoline or gasoline/ethanol mixture.
Hydroelectricity
Electricity generated by the kinetic energy of moving water.
Run-of-the-river
Hydroelectricity generation in which water is retained behind a low dam or no dam.
Water impoundment
The storage of water in a reservoir behind a dam.
Tidal energy
Energy that comes from the movement of water driven by the gravitational pull of the Moon.
Siltation
The accumulation of sediments, primarily silt, on the bottom of a reservoir.
Active solar energy
Energy captured from sunlight with advanced technologies.
Photovoltaic solar cell
A system of capturing energy from sunlight and converting it directly into electricity.
Wind energy
Energy generated from the kinetic energy of moving air.
Wind turbine
A turbine that converts wind energy into electricity.
Geothermal energy
Heat energy that comes from the natural radioactive decay of elements deep within Earth.
Ground source heat pump
A technology that transfers heat from the ground to a building.
Fuel cell
An electrical-chemical device that converts fuel, such as hydrogen, into an electrical current.
Electrolysis
The application of an electric current to water molecules to split them into hydrogen and oxygen.
Smart grid
An efficient, self-regulating electricity distribution network that accepts any source of electricity and distributes it automatically to end users.
Energy efficiency
The amount of useful energy you can get out of a system. In theory, a 100 percent energy efficient machine would change all of the energy put in it into useful work. Converting one form of energy into another form always involves a loss of usable energy, usually in the form of thermal energy. Most energy transformations are not very efficient.