Friedland APES Chapter 16

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Waste
Material outputs from a system that are not useful or consumed.
Municipal solid waste (MSW)
Refuse collected by municipalities from households, small businesses, and institutions.
Waste stream
The flow of solid waste that is recycled, incinerated, placed in a solid waste landfill, or disposed of in another way.
Reduce, reuse, recycle
A popular phrase promoting the idea of diverting materials from the waste stream. Also known as The three Rs.
The three Rs
A popular phrase promoting the idea of diverting materials from the waste stream. Also known as Reduce, reuse, recycle.
Source reduction
An approach to waste management that seeks to cut waste by reducing the use of potential waste materials in the early stages of design and manufacture.
Reuse
Using a product or material that was intended to be discarded.
Recycling
The process by which materials destined to become municipal solid waste (MSW) are collected and converted into raw material that is then used to produce new objects.
Closed-loop recycling
Recycling a product into the same product.
Open-loop recycling
Recycling a product into a different product.
Composting
Creation of organic matter (humus) by decomposition under controlled conditions to produce an organic-rich material that enhances soil structure, cation exchange capacity, and fertility.
Leachate
Liquid that contains elevated levels of pollution as a result of having passed through municipal solid waste (MSW) or contaminated soil.
Sanitary landfill
An engineered ground facility designed to hold municipal solid waste (MSW) with little contamination of the surrounding environment as possible.
Tipping fee
A fee charged for the disposing of material in a landfill or incinerator.
Siting
The designation of a landfill location, typically through a regulatory process involving studies, written reports, and public hearings.
Incineration
The process of burning waste material to reduce the volume and mass, sometimes to generate electricity and heat.
Ash
The residual nonorganic material that does not combust during incineration.
Bottom ash
Residue collected at the bottom of the combustion chamber in a furnace.
Fly ash
The residue collected from the chimney or exhaust pipe of a furnace.
Waste-to-energy
A system in which heat generated by incineration is used as an energy source rather than released into the atmosphere.
Hazardous waste
Liquid, solid, gaseous, or sludge waste material that is harmful to humans or ecosystems.
Superfund Act
The common name for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); a 1980 U.S. federal act that imposes a tax on the chemical and petroleum industries, funds the cleanup of abandoned and nonoperating hazardous waste sites, and authorizes the federal government to respond directly to the release or threatened release of substances that may pose a threat to human health or the environment.
Brownfields
Contaminated industrial or commercial sites that may require environmental cleanup before they can be redeveloped or expanded.
Life-cycle analysis
A systems tool that looks at the materials used and released throughout the lifetime of a product-from the procurement of new materials through their manufacture, use, and disposal. Also known as Cradle-to-grave analysis.
Cradle-to-grave analysis
A systems tool that looks at the materials used and released throughout the lifetime of a product-from the procurement of new materials through their manufacture, use, and disposal. Also known as Life-cycle analysis.
Integrated waste management
An approach to waste disposal that employs several waste reduction, management, and disposal strategies in order to reduce the environmental impact of municipal solid waste (MSW).

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