Upgrade to remove ads
AP BIO- 16.2
Terms in this set (42)
What are the steps of DNA replication?
1. Hydrogen bonds between nucleotides break
2. Strands of DNA separate
3. Free nucleotides are attracted to exposed bases on the loose strands of DNA
4. Hydrogen bonds between nucleotides form.
What type of biological molecule is helicase?
What is the role of DNA helicase in the replication of DNA?
untwists the double helix of DNA at the replication forks
What rule is used to join the free nucleotides to the exposed bases of the DNA?
complementary base pairing
Why is DNA replication called semiconservative?
because the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the old molecule, and one newly made strand
What term refers to the loose DNA inside of a nucleus?
During what part of the cell cycle is the DNA in a cell's nucleus replicated?
end of S
During what part of the cell cycle is the DNA in a cell condensed into chromosomes?
beginning of M
What structure holds the two sister chromatids together as they prepare for cell division?
type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the old molecule, and one newly made strand
origins of replication
site where the replication of a DNA molecule begins
a y shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing
an enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA at a replication fork by the addition of nucleotides to the existing chain
the new complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' to 3' direction
a discontinuously synthesized strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork
a short segment of DNA synthesized on a template strand during DNA replication that make up the lagging strand of a newly synthesized DNA
a linking enzyme essential for DNA replication that catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of a new DNA fragment to the 5' end of a growing chain
a polynucleotide with a free 3' end bound by complementary base pairing to the template strand that is elongated during DNA replication
an enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer
an enzyme that untwists the double helix of DNA at the replication forks
a protein that functions in DNA replication helping to relieve strain in the double helix ahead of the replication fork
single strand binding protein
during DNA replication molecules that line up along the unpaired DNA strands holding them apart while the DNA strands serve as templates for the synthesis of complementary strands of DNA
the cellular process that uses special enzymes to fix incorrectly paired nucleotides
an enzyme that hydrolyzes DNA and RNA into their component nucleotides
nucleotide excision repair
the process of removing and then correctly replacing a damaged segment of DNA using the undamaged strand as a guide
the protective structure at each end of a eukaryotic chromosomes, specifically, the tandemly repetitive DNA at the end of the chromosome's DNA molecule
an enzyme that catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres, includes a molecule of RNA that serves as a template for new telomere segments
What role does complementary base pairing play in the replication of DNA?
complementary base pairing ensures that the two daughter molecules are exact copies of the parent molecule. when the two strands of the parent molecule separate, each serves as a template on which the nucleotides are arranged by the base pairing rules into new complementary strands.
Identify two major functions of DNA pol III in DNA replication.
DNA pol III covalently adds nucleotides to new DNA strands and proofreads each added nucleotide for correct base pairing
Why is DNA pol I necessary to complete synthesis of a leading strand?
The leading strand is initiated by an RNA primer which muse be removed and replaced with DNA, a task performed by DNA pol I.
How are telomeres important for preserving eukaryotic gene?
The ends of eukaryotic chromosomes become shorter with each round of DNA replication and telomeres at the ends of DNA molecules ensure that genes are not lost after numerous rounds of replication.
makes a DNA ligand by attaching Okazaki fragments
unwinds DNA helix
separates two strands
lays down an RNA primer
a small section of RNA that gives DNA polymerase a nucleotide base to start from
DNA Polymerase III
attaches nucleotides together to form a DNA polymer
must add to an existing strand of nucleotides
only adds to the 3' end of the newly synthesized strand
DNA polymerase I
makes little DNA polymers when it replaces the RNA primers with DNA nucleotides
single strand binding protein
protein that helps to stabilize DNA when it is a single strand
the template strand where DNA poly III can add nucleotides to the newly synthesized strand continuously (it follows right behind helicase)
the template strand where DNA poly III cannot move behind helicase in a continuous motion
it moves away from helicase because it can only add to 3' end of the new strand
why do we describe DNA as being antiparallel?
the strands in the double helix aren't parallel meaning that the sugar phosphate backbones run in opposite directions. the 5' to 3' direction of one strand runs counter to the 3' to 5' direction of the other strand.
relieves tension in strand ahead of helicase
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Genetics Unit - Ch 16 Vocab
AP Biology Chapter 16 Vocabulary - The Molecular B…
BIOL 102 Chp 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Biology Chapter 16
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
45 presidents significance and order
Biology Pre-AP: Endocrine and Reproductive System
Chapter 16- The Molecular Basis of Inher…