LIN 3713 MIDTERM

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Terms in this set (...)

phonology
the analysis and description of how meaningful sounds combine into functional patterns in speech production of a language
morphology
the study of the structure of individual words and of the smallest meaningful units along with their possible combinations to form lexical items
allophones
phoneme variations that do not cause meaning change and happen because of its position and the phonetic characteristics of neighboring sounds.
allomorphs
any of the different forms of a morphemes; carries the same meaning but takes a different form (similar to allomorphs); includes plurals and past tense
dialect
accent
A distinctive mode of pronunciation of a language, especially one associated with a particular nation, locality, or social class.
dialect
Are words that are spelled different but have the same meaning (Ex. soda/pop, couch/sofa, sandwich/hoagie)
grapheme
A letter or a number of letters that represent a sound in a word.
phoneme
any of the perceptually distinct units of sound in a specified language that distinguish one word from another. (ex: p, b, d, and t in the English words pad, pat, bad, and bat.)
morpheme
a meaningful morphological unit of a language that cannot be further divided (e.g., in, come, -ing, forming incoming ).
diagraphs
A combination of two letters consistently used for a single sound, as in ph = /f/.
articulation
The formation of clear and distinct sounds in speech.
voiced sounds
Speech sounds produced with vibration of the vocal folds.
voiceless sounds
Speech sounds produced without vibration of the vocal folds
place
Is the location inside the mouth at which the construction takes place.
manner
Is the - stops, fricatives, affricates, nasals, liquids, and glides.
decoding
is the process of translating print into speech by rapidly matching a letter or combination of letters (graphemes) to their sounds (phonemes) and recognizing the patterns that make syllables and words.
encoding
the sender (i.e. encoder) uses verbal (e.g. words, signs, images, video) and non-verbal (e.g. body language, hand gestures, face expressions) symbols for which he or she believes the receiver (that is, the decoder) will understand. The symbols can be words and numbers, images, face expressions, signals and/or actions. It is very important how a message will be encoded; it partially depends on the purpose of the message.
etymology
the study of the origin of words
orthography
the methodology of writing a language. It includes rules of spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.
phonics
the instructional method that focuses on these letter-sound
associations (phoneme-grapheme correspondence).
speech
The oral expression of language.
language
System of arbitrary, established symbols and rule-governed structures used for communication that change over time.
syntax
the study of the grammatical relations between words, how they combine into larger units and the rules that must be obeyed to form sentences. To be distinguished from morphology, which applies to units smaller than the word.
morphology
the study of the structure of individual words and of the smallest meaningful units along with their possible combinations to form lexical items.
phonology
the study of how meaningful sounds combine into functional patterns in speech production of a language
semantics
the study of the meaning of (parts of) words, phrases, sentences and texts with the aim to explain how sequences of language coincide with their meanings when articulated in particular environments.
pragmatics
the study of the ways in which a situation influences the meaning and understanding of spoken language or non-verbal communication.
reflexivity
We can use language to think and talk about language itself
displacement
We can use language to talk about things & events not present in the immediate environment
arbitrariness
Our language is not iconic, the graphic depiction is not directly related to the word
productivity
We can create new language to describe new objects & situations (e.g., "selfie")
cultural transmission
Human language is passed from one generation to the next; it is not inherently biological
duality
Human language has two levels that occur simultaneously; distinct sounds and distinct meanings
modalities of language
Speaking
Writing
Listening
reading
linguistics
The science of language, including sounds, words, and grammar rules
general linguistics
The broad study of linguistics without specialization in any subfield or particular reference to a specific linguistic theory.
applied linguistics
A field of study encompassing all applications of linguistic theory and language learning and education.
cognitive science
The multidisciplinary field of study of the mind and intelligence which investigates how people learn a language rather than what they learn.
computational linguistics
The use of computer science in the study of computational systems that process or analyze written or spoken natural language dealing with aspects such as grammar, interpretation and production of language by technology.
discourse analysis
A vast and multidisciplinary area, with influences from sociology, linguistics, anthropology and psychology, which analyzes language use beyond the sentence or clause level. It examines the patterns and meanings behind connected speech, such as conversational exchanges or written texts.
historical linguistics
The study of linguistic change over time in a particular language (family). The reconstruction of unattested forms of earlier stages of a language by use of the comparative method to study similarities such as vocabulary, word formation and syntax.
language aquisition
The study of how humans acquire a language, in relation with age (child/adult) and whether it is their first or later language learning.
linguistic theories
Theories (argued to be) fundamental to linguistic science, often spanning more than one subfield such as phonology and syntax.
neurolinguistics
The study concerned with the comprehension, production and abstract knowledge of language (spoken, signed or written) and human brain mechanisms.
psycholinguistics
The psychological and neurological factors that enable humans to acquire, use and comprehend language. Experimental psychology is applied to study and understand the mental processes involved in language use.
sociolinguistics
The study of the effect of the society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used.
mass communication
a newscast
interpersonal communication
talking to someone else
intrapersonal communication
Telling oneself to wear oven mitt before getting brownies from the oven
regulatory
Used to give directions and to direct others
instrumental
Used to ask for something
interactional
Used to interact and converse with others in a social way
personal
Used to express a state of mind or feeling about something
heuristic
Used to find out information and to inquire
imaginative
Used to tell stories and role play
informative
Used to share knowledge in an objective, truthful and unbiased way
Neuromuscular (motor) behavior consisting of:
respiration
phonation
resonation
articulation
respiration
Lungs, diaphragm, trachea
phonation
larynx
resonation
Pharynx, oral cavity, nasal cavity
articulation
Lips, tongue, teeth, hard palate, soft palate, jaw
a prescriptive approach
A set of rules for the "proper" use of English
Thou shalt not split an infinitive
descriptive approach
Describes how the grammar of a language is actually used.
Structural Analysis:
The distribution of forms in a language using test-frames
Constituent Analysis:
Labeled and bracketed sentences
Hierarchical organization
simple sentences
contains only one independent clause (*independent clause=a group of words, w/ a subj. And a verb, that expresses a complete thought.
compound sentences
contains at least two independent clauses; these clauses are joined together by a coordinating conjunction or semicolon
complex sentences
contains a subordinate clause and an independent clause (*subordinate clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb but does not express a complete thought)
compound-complex sentences
mash-up of compound sentences and complex sentences. They contain at least two independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause
word structure
"morphology" the study of the structure of individual words
syllable structure
composed of an onset (one or more consonants) and rhyme (vowel) and a coda (following consonants)
morpheme types
Free: carry content
Lexical: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs
Functional: conjunctions, prepositions
Bound: serve a grammar function
derivational
Makes new words or changes the grammatical category (color→ colorful); can be a prefix or suffix
inflectional
does not make a new word, rather indicates aspects of grammatical function (girl→ girl's shoes); can only be a suffix
iconics
gestures that seem to be a reflection of the meaning of what is said (may add meaning)
Ex: Tracing a square in the air while describing a small box, or acting out a story while telling it to create a more clear picture of what you are describing
Deictics
Pointing gesture - can be pointing to something to something that is physically there or something that used to be there that exists in shared memory
Ex: Would you like some cake? (gesturing to the table with a cake on it)
That cake was delicious (gesturing to the table where the cake used to be)
beats
Short, quick movements of the hands or fingers that accompany the rhythm of talk and are used to emphasize parts of what is being said or to mark a change from describing events in a story to commenting on those events
minimal pairs
pairs of words which differ only one phonological element and have distinct meaning.
/p/ and /b/ are both bilabial stops
/t/ and /k/ are alveolar to velar
neoligisms
a new word; modern ones often develop as the result of technology/social networking trademarks that have generalized, and pop culture phenomena
Ex: hoover, Google (noun or verb), app, Kleenex
borrowing
taking over words from other languages
Ex: Piano (Italian)
compounding
joining two separate words to produce a single form
Ex: Softball (soft + ball)
clipping
A word of more than one syllable is reduced to a shorter form
Ex: Condo (condominium), gas (gasoline)
backformation
noun to verb conversion
Ex: televise/television
conversion
Change in the function of a word (a noun becomes a verb)
Ex: 'Glue' the paper down (bottle of 'glue')
coinage
Invention and use of a new form
Ex: Eponym (teddy bear), Acronym (MADD)
english dialects
Regional: (Isoglasses)=geographical boundary in word use
Social: African American English (AAE)