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GE Cluster 20B: Interracial Dynamics Final
Terms in this set (65)
Audrey & Brian Smedley: Changing Perspectives on Human Variation in Science
Race cannot be defined genetically. It is many times associated sole with physical traits, but these traits can be easily changed. Race can also be viewed separate from appearances and instead by the way someone acts and what they believe in (more related to culture). Blood is not a good definer of racial boundaries.
Karen Kaplan: Ancestry in a Drop of Blood
defining someone by blood quantum is the definition of racism. Rule for membership in Native American tribes is based on this blood quantum, but can this truly be the way to define race, since we have decided that race is not related to biology.
Erin Kaplan: Obama's Slave Link
Obama may be related to the first legal slave, which could force white America to have to think about and remember the connection that this country has to slavery, in which our very own president was related to a slave.
Kimberly Tallbear: DNA and Native American Identity
There are multiple ways to test for ancestry, but genetic similarity is not equivalent to personal relations. Genetic testing cannot always hold all of the truth. Should we allow blood to trump real-life relations? If Native American relation is not defined by genetics, then how can it be defined?
Race: The Power of an Illusion- The Difference Between Us
blood connected us together and how we all came from Africa, but since we phenotypically look differently, we believe this to be a deciding factor of race when in reality it really is not.
Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz: An Indigenous Peoples' History
ideas of settler colonialism, and terra nulls are initially introduced. The occurrence of genocide was required and the logic of elimination was implemented to destroy the Natives as a people.
Deborah Miranda: Bad Indians
novel or tribal memoir all about the Native American history as well as descriptions of the horrors that Native Americans went through during settler colonialism and its lasting affects. Includes poems and is written not in a traditional way.
George Lipsitz: The Possessive Investment in Whiteness
definition of "white" is extremely broad and racism was initially institutionalized to aide in white expansion. Racism is always changing; institutional racism seen through unfair housing laws and tricky taxation, which results in an advantage for whites. Historical legacy of race; government assistance and legislation; geographic segregation
Omi & Winant: Racial Formation
social, economic, and political forces that determine content and importance of racial categories. Institutional racism resulting in inequitable distraction of power and privilege. Examples include the War on Drugs and the overall Justice System.
Fox & Guglielmo: Defining America's Racial Boundaires
the continual changing of the definition of "whiteness" and the idea that "whiteness" is an unmarked category with a structural advanced that creates unfair gains and unearned rewards. The labeling of races has changed over time, as seen by the way censuses are labeled racially. Introduces the idea of segregation and Jim Crow laws.
W.E.B. DuBois: The Legacy of John Brown
John Brown was an abolitionist who aided in the underground railroad. He wanted to go after the federal government; forced political crisis and forced whites to come forth and visibly support abolition
Douglas Massey: "Racial Formation in Theory and Practice: the Case of Mexicans in the United States
Tracing the history and present of racialization of Mexicans, the theory of racial stratification can be applied to define US perceptions of racial groups which explains negative attitudes towards Mexicans in history and today. members of pitied outgrips tend to be looked after and cared for in a stable social structure but neglected in times of social disorder; position of a group within a social space can change; group identities and boundaries are negotiated through interactions
Thomas Almaguer: The True Significance of the Word 'White'
unlike black, chinese, japanese, mexican workers were not initially perceived as a formidable obstacle to white working class aspirations; treaty of guadalupe hidalgo enabled mexicans to get us citizenship; mexicans were the only non-white group found ok to marry in 19th century
Angel Island Poetry
Poems on the walls of the immigration station on Angel Island depict immigrants' misery and yearning for their homeland as well as their spite towards America as they anxiously wait to gain entrance into the United States.
California Miner's Tax, April 13, 1850
California state legislature passed an act requiring non-natives (except American Indians to pay a $20 fine to mine with violators of this act facing a $1000 fine and 3 month in jail. Form of institutional racism, because what if you do not have the $20 to spare?
The People, Respondent v. George W. Hall, Appellant
The California Supreme Court ruled that Chinese could not testify in court.
Anti-Asian sentiment; Asian are group most historically discriminated against legally
Norman Asing: To His Excellency Governor Bigler
Governor John Bigler's statement asking for the limitation of immigration into the United States is unjust because people like Bigler are immigrants themselves. Thoughts of immigrants as "aliens," all Americans are essentially "immigrants"
Peggy Pascoe: Miscegenation Law, Court Cases, and Ideologies of "Race" in Twentieth-Century America
An examination on the relation between modern social science, miscegenation law, and the emergence twentieth century racial ideology in which the legal system produces and perpetuates racial ideology. Institutional racism and power to perpetuate racist ideology
movie about aliens and how the aliens are treated horribly and forced to live in secluded areas because they are thought to be dirty and sexual relations with the aliens is looked down upon, etc.
Sucheng Chan: Race, Ethnic Culture, and Gender in the Construction of Identities among Second-Generation Chinese Americans, 1880s to 1930s
Second-generation Chinese immigrant children grew up desperately wanting to be American, resisting their parent's attempts to shape them to gender roles and of Chinese culture. In adolescence they realize that American society does not accept them, yet still attempt to go to college and earn a degree. However, upon entering the adult world, they were exposed to discrimination and prejudice and yearn to return to China.
Broader Implications: Immigrant children & identity, American standard (whiteness)
USCBO: Immigration Policy in the United States
This paper focuses on the evolution of U.S. immigration policy and presents statistics on the various categories of lawful admission and enforcement of the nation's immigration laws
Douglas Massey: Five Myths About Immigration
Contrary to popular belief, most immigrants come to the United States to overcome failed markets at home, but most do not plan to stay.
Michael Walzer: What Does It Mean to Be an "American"?
The U.S. has a political center but other than that there is not true definition (religion, race, etc.). This presents the idea of cultural pluralism.
Race: The Power of an Illusion - The House We Live In
Returning from war, the government set up the FHA (federal housing administration) to help these men buy houses for their families. However, black men returning from war were given harsher rates or simply weren't allow to purchase the homes and thus began the geographical discrimination in which black families were forced to live in certain areas.
Burn Baby Burn
and A Changing Mosaic
Many blacks came to Los Angeles in hopes of creating a better life for themselves, however many found that the racial divides they left behind still existed in L.A.; racial tensions and discrimination led to the explosion of the Watts/L.A. riots
William Jordan: From Rodney King to Michael Brown
Compared to the police officers of the Rodney King incident in 1992, more Americans believe that the police officers of the Michael Brown case should not have been charged, reflecting an improvement of race relations. because racism has gone "underground" and we now in live in a "colorblind" society, people think that race relations have improved but have they really?
Robin Kelley: Why We Won't Wait
Sanctioned war against the black and brown communities, state violence as a war raged by the government. State sanctioned violence & link to current events (Ferguson, indictment decision), government actions can be racialized (against minority communities)
Nick Estes: Blood Money
In Gallup, NM there are an overwhelming amount of liquor licenses, which has resulted in an increased rate of alcoholism and alcohol-related deaths. Police brutality is prominent by having drunk people detox in unsafe conditions, which many times results in death.
Jeanne Theoharis: "A Life History of Being Rebellious": The Radicalism of Rosa Parks
Gendered idea of activism (only activist can be men), idealized version of Rosa Parks as a political symbol (gendered notions were enforced, her activism ignored), she was really a black power activist. Even when fighting for equality in race, stereotypes of gender roles are still perpetuated, race and gender are connected
Peter Irons: The Contrast of Restrictions and
I Ain't Moving Nowhere
Fight to Integrate All-White Neighborhood: attempts to kick out a black family from living in a home
Perry Weed: Components of the White Ethnic Movements
Analyzing statistics from the US census, Perry claims that white ethnics are a racial minority that is heavily represented in blue-collar jobs. White ethnics are also marginalized in society, not just a focus on blacks, Asians, or Latinos
Barbara Mikulski: Who Speaks for Ethnic America
Ethnic America is losing ground economically; colleges make practically no effort to provide scholarships to those with white-ethnic last names; liberals scapegoat ethnic americans as racists, yet "there was no racial prejudice in our hearts when we came"
Gay Telese: Honor Thy Father
Joseph Colombo's arrests galvanized the unification of Italian Americans to protest unfair treatment from the government and the media as result of the created "mafia" image which led to various victories for the Italian-American Civil Right League. Media stigmatizes certain races (Italians and "The Godfather")
Robert Hill: Who Are More Prejudice: WASPs or White Ethnics?
Contrary to popular belief, white ethnics are not more prejudiced against blacks than white Protestants according to the Harris and NORC surveys.
Steven Roberts: Longtime Allies on Rights Split By Bakke Case
The Bakke Case sparked controversy over the idea of affirmative action, specifically among Blacks and Jews (along with other white ethnics) who had been previous allies in the Civil Rights movement.
Peter Freiberg: Integration Quota Faces Court Challenge
The integration quota implemented by Starrett City that is meant to maintain integrated living arrangements, sparks controversy when civil rights groups file suit that Starret City is unfairly denying non-whites housing. Institutional racism (housing)
Rickey Vincent: James Brown: Icon of Black Power
James Brown was one of the most influential music artists of the Black Power movement as well as an influence to the rest of the world. He redefined traditional Western Music by mixing it with African traditional music and created powerful song with his straightforward lyrics about black pride. Power of celebrities as political figures, Music as a rallying call and as a tool for resistance against injustice
James Turner: Black Students and Their Changing Perspectives
In the black student movement, there is a resurgence of Black Nationalism in which students realize that because the system won't change that they have to change it themselves. Activism among youth, driven by their optimism/idealism
Carson, Clayborne, Werner, and Nash: The Struggle for Freedom
Although black power militancy encouraged racial pride and expressed resentment of long-standing racial injustices, racial unity and power remained elusive goals.
Daniel Cobb: Say We are Nations
National Indian Youth Council demands that the federal government, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, should not have ultimate power of the indigenous people as it furthers a system "repressive internal colonialism which parallels the Soviet treatment of its national minorities". he mentions a famous leader in the Native American movement by the name of Clyde Warrior, who wrote an essay on the premises of upholding the rights and promises made by the United States and his fellow People.
No Mas Bebes
Discrimination as taking over/deciding what can be done to women's bodies. Struggle within a racial justice movement to gain validation when men and women are more divided about the importance of the issue
Edward Escobar: The Dialectics of Repression
police "resorted to naked violence to destroy militant protest" when all other attempts to infiltrate organizations and undermine their efforts failed. basically all about the police trying to bring down movements, gives examples such as wire tapping MLK's phone and trying to shut down Chicano newspapers.
Patricia Zavella: Reflections on Diversity Among Chicanas
Zavella challenges accepted theories of feminism as an exploration of the universal female experience and argue the female experience is varied and dependent on an individual's social location, that is her identity formed through experience based on race, class, gender, sexuality, location and upbringing. All data, no matter how objective sounding, is biased by a person's personal experience
Karen Umemoto: On Strike! San Francisco State College Strike, 1968-69: The Role of Asian American Students
Through analysis of four stages of the San Francisco State Strike from 1964-1969, Umemoto argues that participation in the strike led to a growth of political consciousness among Asian American students and that the strike itself galvanized a revolutionary transformation in American in terms of ethnic studies. Student Activism
Edward Said: Islam As News
Islam has a history of being the direct opposite of the West, this "Orient v. Occident" mentality is fostered in political tension, however, the West in limited in understanding Islam because current scholars and Islamic experts are looked over.
David Cole: Ethnic Profiling
Patriot and Enemy: Redefining Terrorism
Following 9/11, the government employed unfair use of ethnic profiling to identify possible suspects of terrorism which spurred overall, anti-Arab and anti-Muslim sentiments. Ethnic profiling is ultimately more flawed than we think it is
Lee & Bean: Intermarriage and Multiracial Identification: The Asian American Experience and Implications for Changing Color Lines
Expansion of colorblindness. There has been a massive increase in people who define themselves as interracial. The Census is the cause of the separation of races, mixed race couple and their children in the far future could blur racial lines to the point where race is irreverent
Emily Alpert: Interracial Couples Increasingly Common, Though Many Aren't Marrying
Why don't interracial couples living together get married? (Older people do not approve, do not desire to marry yet). Interracial couples are more common, they are still not completely accepted
Ortiz & Biggs: The Culture of Poverty, Crack Babies, and Welfare Cheats: The Making of the "Healthy White Baby Crisis"
Poverty was a result of values and behaviors versus institutions and government policy, attribute poverty to individual cultures than then become racialized. Racialization of "poverty" and other code words, in a colorblind society the use of these code words uphold ideas of race, blaming the victim, correlation (race) as causation
Noho Hewa: The Wrongful Occupation of Hawaii
The military uses Hawaii as a place for more realistic exercises so they can be "better prepared" for their deployment. Tourism occupation is the way that tourists and the attractions built for tourists take away spiritual Hawaiian land.
Teresia Teaiwa: Bikinis and Other S/pacific N/Oceans
The bikini was a result of the sexualization of island women
Fetishization of "exotic women". The over-sexualized swimsuit trivializes the suffering of island women
Haunani Kay Trask: Lovely Hula Hands
Trask reveals the ongoing appropriation of Hawaiian culture through the industry of tourism: "Hawaiians have been struggling for over twenty years to achieve a land base and some form of political sovereignty on the same level as American Indians." author shares her frustration over the fact that America and western culture idealize her home and take advantage of it as a tourist attraction while ignoring the social and economic hardships that most of Hawaii faces behind the scenes.
Katsi Cook: Mohawk's Mother's Milk
PCB contamination and its dangerous effects on the milk of Mohawk women, which can then damage their children, but nothing is being done to help the Native and they are instead forced to suffer the consequences of the white man yet again.
Eve Tuck: Suspending Damage
In this open letter, Eve Tuck calls on communities, researchers, and educators to reconsider the long-term impact of "damage-centered" research—research that intends to document peoples' pain and brokenness to hold those in power accountable for their oppression. Tuck urges communities to institute a moratorium on damagecentered research to reformulate the ways research is framed and conducted and to reimagine how findings might be used by, for, and with communities.
Terry Anderson: The Strange Career of Affirmative Action
Affirmative action began with an executive order and was expanded to cover not just African Americans, but all minorities and women. This created a backlash and was originally ignored in the 1930s, and now the backlash has to do with people believing that merit should be the only thing affecting your ability to get hired. Affirmative action is a primary factor in helping liberate minorities and women from discrimination.
Michael Ondaatje: Counterfeit Heroes or Color-blind Visionaries
Conservative African Americans first gained traction after inauguration of Reagan. Contemporary black conservatives have few links with African American social and political institutions, therefore, not accountable for the institutions for which they claim to speak. Black conservatism formed in a modern sense as the American conservative movement gained momentum in the 70's. Reagan's Great Rediscovery gave way to new boundaries for social thought. In this new environment, racism described as a mere blemish on an otherwise perfect past. Affirmative action not a law or policy in 40's, but developed through series of executive orders. Conservatives consolidated its opposition to affirmative action around premise of colorblindness signifying end of racism
Louise Erdrich: The Roundhouse
"Sexual violence: An Introduction to the Social and Legal Issues for Native Women"- a personal story of abuse and marginalization (sexual abuse combined with incarceration; stats on the prison system); what is considered a problem (petty crimes) versus what is ignored (personal violation). American Indians- women as the spiritual center, sexual violation and following injustice mirrors the violation and possession of Native traditions and land "held in trust". Ability to get justice/proper policing
Charlene LaPlante: Sexual Violence
children are considered "sacred' and women are "held in high esteem because we are birth givers of life." LaPlante speaks on the abuse that is all too common on Indian reservations. We know that settler colonialism brought much of the sexual abuse on native women that we still see today. LaPlante, a victim of sexual abuse herself states "The single most powerful influence that helped me regain my sanity and sense of spirit was the Inipi, our purification ceremony that cleanses and renews our spirit."
Michelle Alexander: The Color of Justice
Why are the populations black and latino men disproportionately higher in prisons? Media's establishment of stereotypes of black people, Racialize drug crime, have people associated black people with drugs, stereotypes perpetuated by media affects discretion of police officers and prosecutors. Racial bias does not only occur at an individual level, racial bias can operate in on a larger, institutional scale, Media perpetuates stereotype: racialized images, creates general negative or positive views
Qwo-Li Driskill: Doubleweaving Two-Spirit Critiques
celebrated male and female spirits inside a single person as revered member of society instead of a more ostracized group as considered by a white majority
"two-spirit" an example of a term used more exclusively within the American Indian minority group
William Petersen: Success Story, Japanese-American Style
The Japanese are one of the most historically discriminated groups in the United States, yet through determined persistence to achieve success through economic and educational means, they achieved status of model minority. perpetuation of Model Minority stereotype
Success Story of One Minority in the U.S.
Chinese have succeeded even though they have historical discrimination, model minority stereotype, the Chinese pulled themselves up by their bootstraps,
Model Minority Myth: positive cultural attributes, good cultural practices mean you don't need government assistance to succeed, if you don't succeed it's your own groups fault (comparative aspect). The formation and popularization of the Model Minority Myth has served to set a standard for all Asian Americans to be measured against and by which all other minority groups are measured against as well, this also created interracial tensions between Asians & White and Asians & other minority groups, obscures Asian Americans who are not succeeding
Min Zhou: Are Asian Americans Becoming White?
Model Minority stereotype socially isolates Asian Americans; while the stereotype may seem positive, it also has the idea of "perpetual foreigners". Racialization of Asian Americans of as Model Minorities is both harmful to Asian Americans, Model Minority stereotypes reinforce racial hierarchy
Laura Gomez: Epilogue
The Mexican American (Latino) identity is created white in a legal sense, but non-white in a social sense as well in which Mexican Americans create identities based on individual experience. Government intervention in the creation/pronouncement of racial divides
Telles, Edward & Ortiz: Generations of Exclusion
intermarriage is an indicator of assimilation. any stop to immigration from Mexico would result in a loss to the source of cheap labor. Mexicans are often placed in the lower rungs of American society since they have low levels of education and populate the low-wage industry
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