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US History - Chapter 4

American History: A Survey
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Albany Plan
Proposed in 1754 by Benjamin Franklin as a defensive measure against hostile Indians
Rejected by every colonial assembly
Marquette and Joliet
These French explorers canoes down the Mississippi River during the 1670's
La Salle
In 1682, he reached the Mississippi delta and claimed the surrounding country for France Named it Louisiana after his king, Louis XIV
King William's War
In 1689-1697, a war between the English and French spilled over slightly into North America
both countries wanted this new territory to belong to them
Queen Anne's War
In 1701-1713, another Anglo-French war brought fighting with the French and Indians in the north and the Spanish in the south
Treaty of Utrecht
This ended Queen Anne's War and forced France to give up some of its North American territory to the British
King George's War
A general European war had more repercussions in America as the colonists were brought into conflict with the French (1744-1748)
Fort Necessity
The French began to build forts in the Ohio Valley in 1740
Built by Washington
Began the French and Indian War (French and Indians vs. British and Colonies)
French and Indian War
1754-1763
This began with the French victory at Fort Necessity and concluded with the French giving up all of their North American territory
1754-1755
French forced the surrender of Fort Necessity
French and Indian forces ambushed and routed an army commanded by General Braddock
taught Americans how to fight and how not to fight (guerilla warfare)
1756-1758
Britain and France formally declared war and the fighting spread to the West Indies, Europe, and India
British Secretary of State William Pitt began to personally direct the war policy
Pitt drafted colonists into the army and took their property to supply British
This caused serious conflict between colonists and British
1759-1763
-Pitt relaxed his unpopular policies and sent more British troops
-The British began to win military victories
The fortresses at Quebec and Montreal fell and the actual fighting soon came to an end
Peace of Paris
The French gave up Canada and all the land east of the Mississippi to the British, and all the land west of the Mississippi to the Spanish
Effects of War on the British
their territory in the New World expanded greatly
*The war cost an immense amount of money
They came to resent the colonist (didn't help fight)
Effects of War on the Colonists
They had learned to work together to some extent
They came to believe Britain should stay out of local affairs
They came to believe military service should be voluntary
George III
King of England from 1760-1820
Tried to enforce the authority of the crown on the colonists at the time when they were the least likely to accept it
known as the mad king
made lots of bad decisions
George Grenville
Became the prime minister in 1763 and was determined to make the colonists subservient to the crown through a series of very unpopular restrictions
Proclamation of 1763
Forbade the colonists to cross over a line drawn along the mountain divide at the western frontier
Placated the Indians and kept the colonists contained where the British could control them
Mutiny Act 1765
The colonists had to help supply and maintain the army
The customs system was tightened up, and the colonial manufacturing was restricted
Also known as the Quartering Act
Sugar Act
1764
The duty on sugar was raised so as to restrict the colonies illegal trade with the West indies
Accused smugglers would be tried before British officials
Currency Act
1764
The colonies were forced to stop printing paper money and get rid of what they already had
Stamp Act
1765
They required a tax on every printed documents in the colonies, and was regarded as virtual extortion
Colonists felt that this must not be allowed to pass unchallenged
highly against taxation without representation
Patrick Henry
A Virginia orator famed for his anti-British rhetoric "Give me liberty or give me death" speech
Stamp Act Congress
Delegates from nine colonies met in New York and decided to seek relief form taxation without representation by petitioning the king and Parliament
Declaratory Act
Repeal of the Stamp Act but it also said that parliament had complete authority over the colonies
Townshed Duties
Charles Townshend, chancellor of the exchequer (head finance guy), imposed new taxes on certain British goods imported by the colonies .New taxes on British goods (lead, paint, paper, and tea)
Circular Letter
Massachusetts sought to enlist the support of other colonies in opposing the British taxes
Unsuccessful until the British threatened to dissolve the assemblies of the colonies that supported Massachusetts
Nonimportation Agreement
The colonies banded together to boycott those goods upon which Britain had placed a tax, and the new prime minister Lord North withdrew all of the Townshend Duties except the tax on tea
Boston Massacre
1770
A mob resentful of the British military presence in their city became dangerous, and the soldiers under attack fired into the crowd
Five colonists were killed
Paul Revere painted a famous painting of the massacre
Samuel Adams
The colonies' most vocal and effective radical
John Locke
English author and political theorist of the late 1600's
Advanced the "compact" theory of government which viewed government as having being created by the people to protect them
Gaspee Incident
Angry Rhode Islanders seized a British ship(Gaspee), burned it, and sank it
The British required the accused attackers to be sent to England for trial
This was regarded as another intrusion on American rights and authority
Boston Tea Party
1773
150 men disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea into the harbor
This crude behavior rather offended the British
Coercive Acts
(Intolerable Acts)
Port of Boston was closed
Massachusetts self-government was severely restricted
Royal officers accused of crimes would be tried elsewhere
Colonists would be forced to quarter British officers
Committees of correspondence
founded by Samuel Adams
made possible to unite in action
Continental Congress
1774
12 representatives came from the 13 colonies
passed five resolutions
Minute men
The men of Massachusetts gathered arms and ammunition and prepared themselves to fight on a minute's notice
Thomas Gage
British commander at Boston
Received and attempted to carry out orders to seize Samuel Adams and John Hancock at Lexington
William Dawes and Paul Revere
Along with Samuel Prescott, went from Boston to warn the farms and villages of the approach of the British Revere was captured, only Prescott got through to Concord
Lexington
April 19, 1775
The British were met with a line of minutemen in Lexington
The "Shot hear around the world"
Concord
The secondary British target had been the gunpowder arsenal at Concord
When they arrived most of the gunpowder had been burned
The colonists used the British as targets as they retreated to Boston
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