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World March Exam

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Archeology
Archeology is the study of societies through what people left behind. You are looking for physical things, or what people left behind.
Anthropology
Anthropology is the study of human life and culture (look for unphysical things- trends and people, how language travels, and linguistics)
Neolithic Period (8,000 - 4,000 BC)
It was the "new stone age". They had a nomadic way of life. They settled down and learned to farm (agricultural revolution). Domestication of animals and had a surplus of food. They didn't have social classes yet, but they developed new technologies in farming and eventually to metals(bronze) . Artisans were skilled workers during this Era. Because of the traditional economy based on agriculture, trading and bartering developed
Artisans
a skilled worker who makes products such as weapons and jewelry
Paleolithic Period (2 million - 10,000 BC)
Comes from the two Greek words meaning "old stone". The were nomadic people and hunters/gatherers which means they followed herds of animals to get food, gathering things as they travel. They traveled in bands of 20/30. The people during the Paleolithic period developed language, invented clothes and developed early religious beliefs such as animism. Their Cave paintings,far from settlements, teach the people who came after them, to tell a story of their life, to remember where they were. They believed in the After life and discovered fire.
Animism
spirits, forces, might reside in animals, objects, or dreams
Characteristics of a Civilization
-Cities
-Organized Government
-Complex Religion
-Public works
-Art and Architecture
-Job specialization
-Social class
-Writing
-Surplus of food
Differences between the Paleolithic and Neolithic
Big shift from wanderer from settling. Started to settle down because they realized it is easier. When they realize this they start building structures, job specialization, they start the form an economy to trade, and surplus of food. This means more people and different kinds of jobs, as wells as more trade developed and economy.
Nomadic vs. Agrarian
-Nomad: a wanderer(Paleolithic)
-Agrarian: a farmer(Neolithic)
Hunter Gatherer
a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Neolithic Agricultural Revolution
the shift from hunting and gathering to systematic agriculture
Specialization
The specialization of labor. Not all villagers needed to farm, leads to skilled workers.
Surplus
There was an large amount of food meaning that not everyone had to farm.
Subsistence Agriculture
a self-sufficiency farming system in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their entire families
Geography of Egypt
Located on the Nile and in the Nile valley. This meant fertile land and convenient transportation. Surrounded by natural barriers such as The deserts, The Red Sea, The Cataracts, The Rapids and Mediterranean Sea. The river is the lifeline. The Nile floes north and empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The Fertile marshy land of lower Egypt is called the Nile River Delta (good for farming). Desserts provided protection and the floods were predictable
Religion of Egypt
They were polytheistic and had a God for everything. They believed that if you were good you would make it to the afterlife so many of them spent their lives living up to that goal. The preserved bodies after death using a complex mummification process. They put many of their belongings (even people sometimes), in their tombs and took them to the afterlife with them.
Accomplishments of Egypt
Created a writing system called, Hieroglyphics. Created another writing system, Hieratic Script. Hieroglyphics and Hieratic Script were carved on stone and then papyrus. Built many great pyramids and temples. Excelled in mathematics and developed a 365 day calendar. They used a number system and geometry. Also used medicine.
Politics of Egypt
Upper and Lower Egypt united and was ruled by a Dynasty. The Old kingdom was ruled by a pharaoh and then bureaucracy. Around 3100 BCE, the first dynasty arose when upper and lower Egypt were united into a single kingdom. The capital was Memphis. The Pharaohs are STRONG leaders. Dynasties or hereditary rule was common. Strong centralized government.
Dynasty
a family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the family
Pharaoh
the most common of the various titles for ancient Egyptians monarchs; the term originally meant "great house or "palace"
Bureaucracy
an administrative organization that relies on non elective officials and regular procedures
Economy of Egypt
Surplus of food made them very prosperous. Ruling officials were extremely wealthy. The Middle Kingdom is known as the "Golden Age of Stability". The pyramids showed both power and wealth. The nile was an easy way of transportation which allowed them to make many trades leading to prosperity. They possessed many expensive goods such as wooden furniture and copper tools. Paid taxes to the pharaoh in the form of crops and forced labor on business projects. Made paper from papyrus and linen clothing. Trade goods included gold, ivory, cattle, granite blocks, paper & linen.
Society of Egypt
Ancient Egypt had many classes such as Upper Class, Middle Class, and Lower Class. Most people were farmers. Children had arranged marriages. Peasants paid taxes in crops to the upper class. Men were the masters of the houses. Only Sons kept the family name. Upper Class women were priestesses and Peasant women worked in the fields and in their homes. They could move up and down in society and slaves could buy their freedom. Women had almost as many rights as men.
Upper Class of Egypt
Nobles and Priest
Middle Class of Egypt
Merchants, Artisans, Scribes, and Tax Collectors
Lower Class of Egypt
Peasants (majority)
City-state
a state with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
Ziggurat
a massive stepped tower on which was built a temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a Sumerian city
Cuneiform
"wedge-shaped," a system of writing developed by the Sumerians using a reed stylus to create wedge-shaped impressions on a clay tablet
What were the rivers that lead to the establishment of 4 river valley civilizations?
Tigris, Euphrates, Nile and Indus
Hieroglyphics
a complex system of writing that used both pictures and more abstract forms; used by the ancient Egyptians and Maya
Theocracy
a government established by divine authority
Polytheism vs. Monotheism
Polytheism is the belief and worship of many Gods but Monotheism is the belief and worship of just one God.
Pyramid
a monumental structure with a square or triangular base and sloping sides that meet in a point at the top, especially one built of stone as a royal tomb in ancient Egypt.
Typhoon
Strong, windy, rainy season. Affects India.
Hinduism
a major Indian religious system, which had its origins in the religious beliefs of the Aryans who settled in India after 1500 B.C.
Caste System
a set of rigid categories in ancient India that determined a person's occupation and economic potential, as well as his or her position in society, based on birth (born into caste). Where you are born, you stay forever.
Geography of Greece
covered a small area; about the size of Louisiana. It is made up of a peninsula with a multitude of islands. 80% mountains and is surrounded by water. The two peninsulas are the Isthmus of the Corinth and the Peloponnesian. Consists of plains and river valleys.
Polis
the early Greek city-state, consisting of a city or town and its surrounding countryside
Athens
Economy was largely based on farming and trade. Women were citizens who could take part in most religious festivals but otherwise were excluded from public life. They were expected to remain at home unless attending funerals or festivals (but would still need and escort). Her chief obligation was to bear children and she was in charge of keep the house and children in order.
Sparta
boys, men, and woman all worked out, boys went from age 7-15 at military camps
Religion of Greece
Played a major role in society. 12 chief god and goddesses were thought to live on Olympus. Festivals developed as a way to honor them. Desired to learn the will of the gods so made us of the oracle. Religion was a source of most drama and art.
Oracle
A sacred shrine where a god or goddess was said to reveal the future through a priest of priestess.
3 Greek Philosophers
Aristotle, Pythagoras, and Socrates.
Democracy
"The rule of many"; government by the people, either directly or through their elected representatives.
Oligarchy
"the rule of few"; a form of government in which a select group of people exercise control
Tyrant
a ruler who seized power by force from the aristocrats, gained support from the newly rich and the poor, and maintained power by using hired soldiers and fighting tactics.
Philosophy
an organized system of thought, from the Greek for "love of wisdom" Early Greek ____________ focused on the development of critical or rational thought about the nature of the universe.
Persian War
a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC.
The Great Peloponnesian War
Sparta and its allies feared the growing Athenian Empire, and a series of disputes finally led to the outbreak of the war in 431 B.C.
Hellenistic
"to imitate Greeks"
Hellenistic Era
the age of Alexander the Great; period when the Greek language and ideas were carried to the non-Greek world.
Alexander the Great
a king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon. He wanted to fulfill his father's dream- the invasion of the Persian Empire
Republic
Power rests with the citizens who have the right to vote to select their leader, only free born- male citizens had the right, checks and balances, war time
Roman life and Society
Men lead the houses. Women could work outside of the house. Boys and girls were taught how to read and write, wealthy were taught by Greek tutors. Their religion was influenced by the Etruscans and Greeks.
Twelve Tables
Earliest attempt of the Romans to create a code of law, right to a trial, right to face your accuser
Plebians
The common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up the majority of the population, demanded equality, elected their own tribunes
Patricians
The aristocrat landowners who held most of the power
Julius Caesar
Ambitious military commander who dominated Roman politics w/ Pompeii. Pompeii worried about Caesar's power gain. Forced senate to make him dictator. Absolute ruler of Rome.
Decline of Republic/ Rise of Empire
began when Octavian took the lead. Octavian was aware that the Roman Republic would never be able to be completely rebuilt. Given his power and popularity, Octavian was given the title Augustus and later imperator (or emperor). He constructed a fierce army of 28 legions which would help protect the "republic". Slowly, Augustus began to alter society and transform it to an Empire
Pax Romana
Means "Roman Peace." This was the 200-year Golden Age of Rome in which there was extensive trade and great achievements in art, literature, math, and science.
Fall of Rome
-Christianity's emphasis on a spiritual kingdom weakened Roman military virtues.
-Traditional Roman values declined as non-Italians gained prominence in the empire.
-Lead poisoning through leaden water pipes and cups caused a mental decline in the population.
-Plague wiped out one-tenth of the population.
-Rome failed to advance technologically due to slavery.
-Rome could not create a workable political system.
Constantine
son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman Army officer, and his consort Helena. His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. he was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under Emperors Diocletian and Galerius.
Byzantine Empire
Strong economy and Government, mixed Christian beliefs w/ Greek science. Philosophy, Arts and literature.
Justinian
Ruled 527-565. Byzantine was greatest size during his rule. Wanted greatness of Ancient Rome. Building program to beautify Constantinople. Collected and organized all of ancient laws. These laws became the Justinian Code.
Constantinople
the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine empires
Triumvirate
A government by three people with equal power. This was important because it gave more, but still a small number, of people power. It brought both wealth and power to the ruling body.
Location of Rome
Strategic location, route to the sea but no invasion from pirates, easily defended by its 7 hills, natural crossing point for trade and traffic in Italy, helped expand
Romulus and Remus
Twin brothers, abandoned by parents at young age, put into basket and floated down Tiber river, discovered and raised by a She wolf, found by a shepherd who took care of them, wanted to found a city, quarrelled over the location
Senate
The most powerful governing body, 300 members: all patricians served for life and made the laws, elected 2 consuls
Consuls
2 chosen every year, ran the government and led the Roman army into battle
Praetors
In charge of civil laws that applied to Roman citizens and to judge cases in which one or both people were noncitizens
Carthage
A Pheonician city in North Africa
First Punic War
Rome took the grain producing island of Sicily and becoming a sea power in the process, Rome lost nearly 1/5 of its citizens in the war, the Romans took Sardinia and Corsica and threatened Carthage's colonial settlement in Spain
Second Punic War
Hannibal launched an invasion from Spain, crossing the Pyrenees and the Alps and swooping down on Rome from the North, Roman suffered great loss and lost the Gauls, Rome defeated Carthage in the end
Third Punic War
Carthage rebuilds its economy over the next 50 years, Rome saw this as a threat and attacked to protect its Northern African ally, Numidia, Rome destroyed the city of Carthage and ruined its land, sold the Carthaginians into slavery
Hannibal
Carthage's general, won battles on the Italian Peninsula but never Rome itself in the second Punic War, transfer his men back to Carthage when Rome invades it
Scipio
Romans general, cut Hannibal's supply's in Spain then invaded Carthage itself in the second Punic war
Augustus
Octavian formed a triumvirate with Lepidus and Mark Antony. Together they defeated Julius Caesar's rivals at Philippi in 42 B.C.
Romans Maintaining Control
Assigned a leading governor to each province who took messages from the central government on how to rule
Geography of Mesopotamia
Pivotally important to development and existence. The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers provided rich soil and water for farming. Flooding was unpredictable. The Zagros Mountain and the Syrian desert provided protection from invaders.
Politics of Mesopotamia
Originally City-States and later Empires. 4 empires would develop within Mesopotamia.
1. Akkadian
2. Babylonian
3. Assyrian
4. Neobabylonian
Each empire takes over the next one.
*CITY-STATES>>>EMPIRE*
Economy of Mesopotamia
Based primarily on agriculture- 90% of people were farmers. Artifacts revealed metal work in bronze, copper, and gold.
Religion of Mesopotamia
Polytheistic. Constructed huge pyramids called ziggurats. Sumerians had a negative view of the afterlife where there souls would wander in the land of no return. Rulers were believed to be chosen by Gods. The earliest leaders were priests.
Society of mesopotamia
1. Priest & Kings
2. Scribes
3. wealthy Merchants
4. Commoners
5. Slaves
Priest communicated and made offerings to the Gods. The Gods controlled everything so they were VERY important. Women had more right then women in later civilizations, but were not educated.
Summary of Indus
On the Indus river in Presents day Pakistan (2500 BC). No written records. Flourished for 1000 years then gone. Largest civilization till Persia 1000 years later. Well planned cities. System of weights and measure. They had sewers which shows knowledge and hygiene. Farmers & Traders traded with Sumer. Followed a polytheistic religion. The decline and disappearance could've been caused by a natural disaster of the Aryans 1500 BC (from current day Russia). Hindu Kush in the north west and Himalayas in the north east. The had government, laws and maybe a fair democracy? Uniform homes.
Summary of Mesopotamia
the valley between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. at the eastern end of the Fertile Crescent, an arc of land from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. Rich soil and abundant crops allowed the land to sustain an early civilization. Created by the Sumerians. Followed a Polytheistic Religions and had buildings called Ziggurats leading to a theocracy. bartered, or exchanged, wool, barley, dried fish, wheat, and metal goods for imported copper, tin, and timber. The invention of the wheel which made transportation much easier. The were organized by nobles, commoners, and slaves. Their greatest invention was the cuneiform. Followed the code of Hammurabi?
Achievements of Mesopotamia
Cuneiform, The Epic of Gilgamesh, Hammurabi's Code, The wheel, the sail, the plow, irrigation systems and Bronze tools.
Hammurabi's Code
Code that dealt with both criminal crimes and punishments. There were 282 laws concerning a wide variety of abuses.Laws for commerce. Harsh punishments including "an eye for an eye". Different rules for different social classes. NOT SOCIALLY EQUAL!! Carved onto a basalt (stone) slab called a stele.
Minoans
-Started on Crete
-Most Ancient of Greek civilizations
-Knossos was its capital
-Built ships and sailed all over the mediterranean
-traded olive oil, wood, and pottery with Egypt and southern Greece
-Destroyed by a tsunami (tidal wave) and ask from a volcano eruption on the island of Thera (Santorini)
Myceneans
-Lived on the Greek mainland peninsula of Peloponnesus
-Conquered Minoans
-Were the first to speak greek
-Spread through war and conquest
-"first greeks"
-Attacked the city of Troy in Asia minor (mythical trojan war)
-The stories of Homer's mythical Greece are attributed to them
-Arête (honor)
-Heroism (willingness to do great things)
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