the valley between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. at the eastern end of the Fertile Crescent, an arc of land from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. Rich soil and abundant crops allowed the land to sustain an early civilization. Created by the Sumerians. Followed a Polytheistic Religions and had buildings called Ziggurats leading to a theocracy. bartered, or exchanged, wool, barley, dried fish, wheat, and metal goods for imported copper, tin, and timber. The invention of the wheel which made transportation much easier. The were organized by nobles, commoners, and slaves. Their greatest invention was the cuneiform. Followed the code of Hammurabi?