Japan 3/3/18

Warring States Period (aka Sengoku)
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A brutal and ambitious daimyo who aspired to take control of the entire country, and defeated his rivals and seized the imperial capital Kyoto in 1568. His motto was "Rule the empire by force" and he sought to eliminate his remaining enemies - rival daimyo and wealthy Buddhist monasteries alighted with the rival daimyo. His soldiers uses muskets.
ConfucianIn Japan, as in China, Confucian values influenced ideas about society. According to Confucius, the ideal society depended on agriculture not commerce. Farmers, not merchants made ideal citizens. In Tokugawa Japan, however, peasant farmers bore the main tax burden and faced more difficulties than any other class - many gave up farming and headed to towns/cities.Tokugawa womenFound jobs in entertainment, textile manufacturing, and publishing but majority led shelter and restricted lives as peasant wives, working in fields, managing household, caring for children, obedient to husband.Tokugawa culture thrived~noh dramas - based on tragic themes ~Haiku - 5-7-5 syllable, 3 line verse poetry that presents images rather than ideas, read by the people ~Kabuki theatre - attended by townspeople - actors in elaborate costumes, using music, dance and mime performed skits about modern life.Initial contact between Europe and Japan1st encounter was in 1543 when shipwrecked Portuguese sailors washed up on southern Japan shores. Followed by Portuguese merchants hoping to be involved with Japan's trade with China and SE Asia. Europeans started coming in the 16th century, during the Warring States period. Though time of severe disorder, Japanese initially welcomed traders and missionaries because of the new technologies and ideas. W/in a century, however, the aggressive Europeans were no longer welcome.Some items the Portuguese brought to JapanClocks, eyeglasses, tobacco, firearms and other unfamiliar items from Europe. Also muskets and cannons -- the Daimyo were particularly interested in these weapons because every daimyo sought an advantage over his rivals. (After purchasing weapons from the Portuguese, the Japanese soon started their own production)Firearms effect on Japanese cultureFirearms forever changed the time-honored tradition of the Japanese warrior, who principal weapon had been the sword. Some Daimyo trained corps of peasants to use muskets. Many samurai, who retained the sword as their principal weapon, would lose their lives to musket fire in future combat. The cannon also had a huge impact on warfare and life in JapanEffect of cannons on warfare and life in Japan.Daimyo had to build fortified castles to withstand the destructive force of cannonballs. The castles attracted merchants, artisan and others to surrounding lands.Christian missionaries in JapanIn 1549 Christian missionaries began arriving in Japan -- they came to convert. At first they were accepted by the Japanese because they associated them with muskets and other European goods; but by 1612, the shogun (Tokugawa Ieyasu) had come to fear religious uprisings more & he banned Christianity and focused on ridding his country of all Christians.Persecution of ChristiansAfter Ieyasu dies, repression of Christianity continued off an on - but after an uprising in 1637 of which the shogun determined the Christians were at the root, they were actively persecuted, and missionaries killed or driven out & all Japanese were forced to demonstrate faithfulness to some branch of Buddhism.Japanese exclusion policyThe policies against Christians and requiring all Japanese to demonstrate faithfulness to Buddhism eventually eliminated Christianity in Japan and led to the formation of an exclusion policy.Controlling foreign ideasPersecution of Christians was part of an attempt to control foreign ideas. When the Europeans first arrived (during the Warring States Period) there was no central authority to contain them. Once there was stron leaders in power, however, tho they did not like the introduction of European ideas & ways, they wanted the European trade. Eventually Tokugawa shoguns realized they could safely exclude the missionaries and merchants. This left to "closed country policy."Japan's "closed country policy"By 163, the Tokugawa shoguns had sealed Japan's borders and instituted a "closed country policy" which put Japan essentially in isolation.Japan in IsolationMost commercial contacts with Europeans ended. One port, Nagasaki, remained open to foreign traders, but only the Dutch and Chinese merchants were allowed. Earlier, the English had left Japan voluntarily; the Spanish and the Portuguese had been expelled.How long did Japan's Isolation last?For more than 200 years, Japan remained basically closed to Europeans. In addition, the Japanese were forbidden to leave as to not bring back foreign ideas. Japan would continue to develop, but as a self sufficient country.