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Terms in this set (34)
the _____ regulates breathing, based on info sent by chemoreceptors in the respiratory center, carotid arteries and aorta
an increased paCO2= _______ rate and depth
(ventilation and perfusion of alveoli)
the balance between pulmonary ventilation and capillary blood flow which produces adequate gas exchange in the lungs
0.8 (all alveoli will receive ventilation and capillaries perfusion)
what is the normal V/Q ratio?
What are the four stages of ventilation?
2. pulmonary diffusion
4. tissue diffusion
stage 1: ventilation
stage: movement of air between atmosphere and alveoli, measured by paCO2,
requires: patent airway, adequate rate/depth, functioning nerve supply
PaCO2 >______= hypoventilation
paCO2 < ______= hyperventilation
stage 2: pulmonary diffusion
Stage: diffusion of gases at alveolar capillary membrane, requires: surfactant for patency, adequate surface area, adequate pressure ratio of alveoli to capillaries for diffusion, adequate pulmonary circulation
stage 3: perfusion
Stage: movement of O2 into plasma to bind with Hgb and to be transported to tissues, requires: adequate blood (H&H), adequate CO, adequate pulm. circulation
Stage 4: tissue diffusion
Stage: diffusion at cell capillaries (O2 into tissue, Co2 into bloodstream to eliminate), requires: Hgb sat with O2, adequate CO
what are the three parts of respiratory assessment?
resp. rate of ____= need for ventilator assistance, _____= early warning of instability
what does tracheal deviation indicate?
GCS of ____= intubate
mental, respiratory, cardiac, renal
what is the order of changes that signify an alteration in perfusion/oxygenation?
respiratory failure type ____ is an issue with oxygenation: the presence of hypoxia without hypercapnia (paO2 <60mmhg)
respiratory failure type ___ is an issue with ventilation: the presence of hypoxia and hypercapnia (paO2 <60mmHg, PaCo2 >50mmhg)
warm/flushed skin, bounding pulses, headaches
what are the three additional signs that are seen in Type 2 respiratory failure?
what other lab do you draw when you draw ABGs?
lactic acid is an indicator of ______ _____
paO2, O2 saturation
what two values on the ABG reflect oxygenation?
what two values on the ABG reflect ventilation?
bi-pap/c-pap, ventialtory support
what two types of O2 delivery can fix ventilation?
what is the only NORMAL pH reading?
the WEAKEST compensatory mechanism but also the FASTEST
decrease (hold more CO2/acid to balance)
with an Increased Ph: rate and depth of respirations _____,
with a decreased pH: rate and depth of respirations _____
the STRONGEST compensatory mechanism but also the SLOWEST
with an increased pH the kidneys ______ to balance, with a decreased pH the kidneys ______ to balance
if pH is within the range of 7.35-7.45 then it is _____, if it is outside the range then it is _____
CO2 is an acid
paCO2 > 50mmHg
what is the PaCO2 that indicates respiratory failure?
1. body will never OVERCOMPENSATE (range of 7.35-7.45)
2. the pH will "lean" to the initial disorder
3. only one value will correspond with the pH
what are the three golden rules for compensation?
what is the first line drug of choice for PEA?
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