Terms in this set (119)
Vibrations that are trasmitted, usually through air, to the eardrum, which sends impulses to the brain.
A sound that has a definite pitch.
The relative highness or lowness that we hear in a sound
The "distance" in pitch between any two tones
the distance between the lowest and highest tones that a voice or instrument can produce
the degrees of loudness or softness in music
Emphasis of a note, which may result from its being louder, longer, or higher in pitch than the notes near it
tone color (timbre)
Quality of sound that distinguishes one instrument or voice from another.
Melody that serves as the starting point for an extended piece of music.
Changing some features of a musical idea while retaining others.
Ordered flow of music through time; the pattern of durations of notes and silences in music.
Regular, recurrent pulsation that divides music into equal units of time.
Organization of beats into regular groups.
Rhythmic group set off by bar lines, containing a fixed number of beats.
First, or stressed, beat of a measure.
Unaccented pulse preceding the downbeat.
Accenting a note at an unexpected time, as between two beats or on a weak beat. It is a major characteristic of jazz.
Basic pace of the music.
Apparatus that produces ticking sounds or flashes of light at any desired constant speed.
System of writing down music so that specific pitches and rhythms can be communicated.
In notation, a black or white oval to which a stem and flags can be added.
In notation, a set of five horizontal lines betwen or on which notes are positioned.
Short, horizontal lines above or below the staff, used to indicate a pitch that falls above or below the range indicated by the staff.
Combination of the treble and bass staves, used in keyboard music to encompass the wide range of pitches produced by both hands.
Vertical line on a note indicating how long that note is to be held relative to the notes around it.
Wavy line attached to the stem on a note, indicating how long that note is to be held relative to the notes around it.
Horizontal line connecting the flags of several eighth notes or sixteenth notes in succession, to facilitate reading these notes.
Note with a dot to the righ t of it. This dot increases the note's undotted duration by half.
Long-short rhythmic pattern in which a dotted note is followed by a note that is much shorter.
In notation of rhythm, an arc between two notes of the same pitch indicating that the second note should not be played but should be added to the duration of the first.
In notation of a rhythm, three notes of equal duration grouped within a curved line with the numeral 3, lasting only as long as two notes of the same length would normally last.
Notation showing all the parts of a musical ensemble, with a separate staff for each part, and with simultaneously sounded notes aligned vertically; used by the conductor.
Time signature (meter signature)
Two numbers, one above the other, appearing at the beginning of a staff or the start of a piece, indicating the meter of the piece.
Interval between two adjacent tones in the scale.
Interval larger than that between two adjacent tones in the scale.
Smooth, connected manner of performing a melody.
Short, detached manner of performing a melody.
Part of a melody.
(1) Resting place at the end of a phrase in a melody. (2) Progression giving a sense of conclusion, often from the dominant chord to the tonic chord.
Inconclusive resting point at the end of a phrase, which sets up expectations for the following phrase.
Definite resting place, giving a sense of finality, at the end of a phrase in a melody.
Highest tone or emotional focal point in a melody or a larger magical composition.
In a melody, the immediate repetition of a melodic pattern on a higher or lower pitch.
How chords are constructed and how they follow each other.
Combination of three or more tones sounded at once.
Series of chords.
Tone combination that is stable and restful.
Tone combination that is unstable and tense.
Progression from a dissonance to a consonance.
Most basic of chords, consisting of three alternate tones of the scale, such as do, mi, sol.
Triad built on the first, or tonic, note of scale, serving as the main chord or a piece and usually beginning and ending it.
Triad built on the fifth note of the scale, which sets up tension that is resolved by the tonic chord.
Broken chord (arpeggio)
Sounding of the individual tones of a chord in sequence rather than simultaneously.
Central tone of a melody or a larger piece of music. When a piece is in the key of C major, for example, C is the keynote.
Central note, scale, and chord within a piece, in relationship to which all other tones in the composition are heard.
Series of seven different tones within an octave, with an eighth tone repeating the first tone an octave higher, consisting of a specific pattern of whole and half steps; the whole step between the second and third tones is characteristic.
Series of seven tones within an octave, with an eighth tone repeatings the first tone an octave higher, composed of a specific pattern of whole and half steps; the half step between the second and third tones is characteristic.
Scale including all twelve tones of the octave; each tone is a half step away from the next one.
Shift from one key to another within the same piece.
Number of layers of sound that are heard at once, what kinds of layers they are, and how they are related to each other.
Single melodic line without accompaniment.
Performance of two or more melodic lines of relatively equal interest at the same time.
Technique of combining two or more melodic lines into a meaningful whole.
Presentation of a melodic idea by one voice or instrument that is immediately followed by its restatement by another voice or instrument, as in a round.
Term describing music in which one main melody is accompanied by chords.
Reiteration of a motive, phrase, or section, often used to create a sense of unity.
Striking differences of pitch, dynamics, rhythm, and tempo that provide variety and change of mood.
Changing some features of a musical idea while retaining others.
Three-part (ternary) form (A B A)
Form that can be represented as statement (A); contrast (B); return of statement (A).
Two-part (Binary) from (A B)
Form that can be represented as statement (A) and counterstatement (B).
Creation of music at the same time as it is performed.
Ornamental tones that are either improvised by the performer or indicated in the music by signs or notes in small print.
Performing artist of extraordinary technical mastery.
In recorded music, the insertion of sounds, which may themselves be live or prerecorded, that then become part of the resulting piece of music.
Characteristic way of using melody, rhythm, tone, color, dynamics, harmony, texture, and form in music.
Emotional states like joy, grief, and agitation represented in baroque music through specific musical languages.
Abrupt alternation between loud and soft dynamic levels; characteristic of baroque music.
Baroque keyboard instrument in which sound is produced by means of brass blades striking strings, capable of making gradual dynamic changes, but within a narrow volume range.
Baroque accompaniment made up of a bass part usually played by two instruments: a keyboard plus a low melodic instrument.
Bass part of a baroque accompaniment with figures (numbers) above it indicating the chords to be played.
Piece that sounds fairlyy complete aand independent but is part oof a larger composition.
In Italian, all; the full orchestra, or a large group of musicians contrasted with a smaller group; often heard in baroque music.
Compositional form usually employed in the baroque concerto grosso, in which the tutti plays a ritornello, or refrain, alternating with one or more soloists playing new material.
In Italian, refrain; a repeated section of music usually played by the full orchestra, or tutti, in baroque compositions.
Theme of a fugue.
Second presentation of the subject in a fugue, usually in the dominant scale.
In a fugue, a melodic idea that accompanies the subject fairly constantly.
Transitional section in a fugue between presntations of the subject, which offers either new material or fragments of the subject or countersubject.
Compositional procedure used in fugues, in which a subject is imitated before it is completed; one voice tries to catch the other.
Single tone, usually in the bass, which is held while the other voices produce a series of changing harmonies against it; often found in fugues.
Variation of a fugue subject in which each interval of the subject is reversed in direction.
Variation of a fugue subject in which the subject is presented by beginning with its last note and proceeding backward to the first.
Variation of a fugue subejct in which the original time values of the subject are lengthened.
Variation of a fugue subject in which the original time values of the suubject are shortened.
Short piece usuallly serving to introduce a fugue or another composition; a short piece for piano.
Text of an opera.
Dramatist who writes the libretto, or test, of an opera.
Voice categories of opera
Voice ranges with include coloratura soprano, lyric soprano, dramatic soprano, lyric tenor, dramatic tenor, bbasso bufffo, and basso profundo, among others.
Song for solo voice with oorchestral accompaniment, usually expressing an emotional state through its outpouring of melody; found in operas, oratorios, and cantatas.
Vocal line in an opera, oratorio, or cantata that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of sspeech, often serving to pitch fluctuations of speech, often serving to lead into an aria.
In opera, a piece performed by three or more solo singers.
(1) A group of singers performing together, generally with more than one to a part. (2) In jazz, a statement of the basic harmonic pattern or melody.
Person who gives cues and reminds singers of their words or pitches during an opera performance. The prompter is located in a box just over the edge of center stage, which conceals him or her from the audience.
Short musical composition, purely orchestral, which opens an opera and sets the overall dramatic mood. Orchestral introductions to later acts of an opera are called preludes.
It Italian, fellowship or society; a group of nobles, poets, and composers who began to meet regularly in Florence around 1575 and whose musical discussions prepared the way for the beginning of opera.
Male singer castrated before puberty to retain a high voice range; the most important category of vocal soloists in opera during the baroque period.
Speechlike melody that is sung by a solo voice accompanied only by a basso continuo.
Speechlike melody that is sung by a solo voice accompanied by the orchestra.
Da capo aria
Aria is A B A form; after the B section, the term da capo is written; this means from the beginning and indicates a repetition of the opening A section.
From the beginning; an indication usually meaning that the opening section of a piece is to be repeated after the middle section.
Variation form in which a musical idea in the bass is repeated over and over while the melodies above it continually change; common in baroque music.
Musical ornament consisting of the rapid alternation of two tones that are a whole or half step apart.
In baroque music, a set of dance-inspired movement all written in the same key but differing in tempo, meter, and character.
Common opening piece in baroque suites, oratorios, and operas; usually in two parts: the first slow, with characteristic dotted rhythm, full of dignity and grandeur; the second quick and lighter in mood, often starting like a fugue.
Hymn tune sung to a German religious text.
Short composition for organ, based on a hymn tune and often used to remind the congregation of the melody before the hymn is sung.
Vocal solo more lyrical than a recitative and less elaborate than an aria.