17 terms

1.5 Network Protocols

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Web Hosting
A service that allows an individual or company to store website files (HTML, images, etc) on the providers web server in order to make it accessible to the World Wide Web. Often includes domain name registration.
Cloud Storage
A method of data storage where users can upload their files onto the web servers of a service provider. Often used for backing up important files.
Bandwidth
The measure of how much data can travel along a medium (e.g. a wire, wireless) in a given second. Tends to be measured in bits per second (bps). As internet connection speeds have increased, you tend to see it represented as Megabits per second or Mbps (which is 1000 bps).
Latency
The delay between the data being sent and reaching its destination. A major factor affecting network performance. You may have a super-fast internet connection, but if the data you are trying to get is on the other side of the world and having to go through satellite connections, if will take time to reach you.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol)
Consists of two separate protocols. TCP is a standard that specifies how the packages are broken up and sent. It also includes error checking and resends lost packets. The Internet Protocol is used to identify the location of a device on the net and allows the packets to be routed.
HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)
Standard for accessing and receiving webpages that are in the form of HTML files on the Internet. The protocol asks the web server to send the requested web page to the client.
HTTPS (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure)
Acts in the same way as HTTP, but the data sent is encrypted to prevent it from being understood if intercepted
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
Standard used for transferring files from a client to a server. Allows for queues of files and well as pauses of transfer.
POP (Post Office Protocol)
A standard for receiving emails. Transfers emails from the server to the local device. As the emails are removed from the server, the account is in effect tied to the device.
IMAP (Instant Messaging Access Protocol)
A standard for receiving emails. Allows the user to read, manipulate and delete emails using any device from the server. Most clients download local copies of the emails during synchronisation, but the original remains on the server unless deleted by the user.
SMTP (Simple Message Transfer Protocol)
A standard for sending emails. Having a standard for sending emails means that emails providers know what to expect when they receive an email from a different provider.
Data Packets
Data is broken up into equally sized small chunks before being sent onto the network. They are put back together when they reach their destination.
Handshaking
Before the data is sent, the two devices agree on how the data will be sent - protocols to use, transmission speed, packet size, etc
Error Checking
Ensuring that the data reaches its destination without error. This can include the use of checksum to ensure the data has not been corrupted, echoing back to check the data received was the once sent and automatic re-sending of data if an acknowledgement of getting all the data is not received.
IP Address
A unique 32 bit (4 byte) number assigned to all devices connected to a network. A connected device will have a local IP address, internet IP address or both. Usually represented in denary
MAC Address
Every network interface card (wired or wireless - including Bluetooth) will physically have embedded during manufacture a unique 48 bit (6 byte) code that cannot be changed. Usually represented in hexadecimal
Network Protocol
Specifies the standards to be used in communication, such as: format of data packets, addressing system, transmission speed and error checking technique
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