Chapter 10: The Structure and Function of DNA
Terms in this set (43)
Study of heredity at the molecular level
DNA provides information. Make and maintain cells.
DNA to complementary of DNA
RNA to sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide (protein)
Rule converts nucleotide sequence in RNA to amino acid sequence.
Triplet of bases, codes for 1 of 20 amino acids. 64 Codons: 61 for amino acids, 3 stop codons.
Codon triplet complementary to mRNA
Located in DNA. Beginning of gene and RNA polymerase attaches.
Termination of transcription
Noncoding. Inside nucleus
Coding, exit nucleus
Cap and Tail
Messenger RNA. Blueprints
Transfer RNA. Interpreter. Pick up appropriate amino acid. Recognize the appropriate codon in mRNA.
Any change in nucleotide sequence in DNA. Changes the amino acids in protein. Sometimes harmful or mostly harmful
Physical or chemical agents
Share some but not all the characteristics of living organisms. Possess genetic material and cannot reproduce on their own.
Phages, are viruses that attack bacteria molecule of DNA, enclosed within an elaborate structure made of proteins.
Genetic makeup. Sequence of nucleotide bases
Organism's physical traits. Variety of protein
What is the function of DNA?
Stores genetic information that is passed from generation to generation.
What direction does DNA and RNA replicated?
Replicate in both directions. 5'-3'. Five prime to three prime
How are nucleotides held together?
What two molecules of the nucleotides make the "backbone" of DNA?
How are DNA and RNA different?
Why is it important that a complete copy of DNA passes from one generation to the next?
Describe DNA replication
DNA provides information. It makes and maintains cells. Cells reproduce. It must duplicate information that is passed from one generation to the next. Requires dozens of enzymes to work together.
What are the functions of DNA polymerase?
What is the central dogma of molecular biology?
What are the 3 steps of transcription?
1. Initiation of transcription: Promoter region located in DNA. A beginning of gene and RNA polymerase attaches. 2. Elongation of RNA: Adding of nucleotides. Replace "T" with "U."
3. Termination of Transcription: Terminator region
Describe RNA processing?
Describe Amino acid attachment step?
What are the 3 steps of translation? How is it different from transcription?
How many amino acids are there?
What is the function of a ribosome?
Make polypeptiden coordinate mRNA and tRNA
Where does translation and transcription occur?
How many subunits are found in a ribosome? What are the subunits made out of?
2 Subunits are made ribosomes. Made out of protein.
What are the 2 types of mutations?
1. Substitutions- replacement of one
2. Deletions or inserts- loss or addition of nucleotide
What is the structure of a virus? Are they alive?
What is a bacteriophage?
Phages, are viruses that attack bacteria molecule of DNA, enclosed within an elaborate structure made of proteins
What kinds of virus is HIV?
Its a retrovirus. RNA virus that reproduces by means of a DNA molecule. Reverse transcripts. Inserts into host chromosomes and infects and kills white blood cells.
You will be given a DNA sequence and show how we make a protein.
You must list all the steps of:
what is required for amino acids attachment.
provide the complement for RNA and the sequence for a amino acid and finally the protein you synthesized
You will be given a codon chart, so don't worry about memorizing it! But know how to use it!!