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Terms in this set (67)
Which of the following statements about species, as defined by the biological species concept,
is (are) correct?
I. Biological species are defined by reproductive isolation.
II. Biological species are the models used for grouping extinct forms of life.
III. The biological species is the largest unit of population in which successful interbreeding is
I and III
2) There is still some controversy among biologists about whether Neanderthals should be placed
within the same species as modern humans or into a separate species of their own. Most DNA
sequence data analyzed so far indicate that there was probably little or no gene flow between
Neanderthals and Homo sapiens. Which species concept is most applicable in this example?
You are confronted with a box of preserved grasshoppers of various species that are new to
science and have not been described. Your assignment is to separate them into species. There is
no accompanying information as to where or when they were collected. Which species concept
will you have to use?
Two species of frogs belonging to the same genus occasionally mate, but the offspring fail to
develop and hatch. What is the mechanism for keeping the two frog species separate?
the postzygotic barrier called hybrid inviability
5) Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and gray wolves (Canis lupus) can interbreed to produce viable,
fertile offspring. These species shared a common ancestor recently (in geologic time) and have a
high degree of genetic similarity, although their anatomies vary widely. Judging from this
evidence, which two species concepts are most likely to place dogs and wolves together into a
biological and phylogenic
Which of the following statements about speciation is correct?
speciation is a basis for understanding macroevolution
Which of the following criteria used in classification is the most easily evaluated by the
A species is a member of a group called a population,
whose members have the ability to interbreed and produce viable offspring
which of the following reproductive types of isolation illustrates postzygotic barriers
the phylogenic species concept defines a species as
the smallest group of individuals that share a common ancestor
11) Which species concept occurs in the presence of gene flow?
Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) and one-seeded juniper (J. monosperma)
have overlapping ranges. If pollen grains (which contain sperm cells) from one species are
unable to germinate and make pollen tubes on female ovules (which contain egg cells) of the
other species, then which of these terms are applicable?
1. sympatric species
2. prezygotic isolation
3. postzygotic isolation
4. allopatric species
5. habitat isolation
6. reduced hybrid fertility
1 and 2
13) In a hypothetical situation, a certain species of flea feeds only on pronghorn antelopes. In
rangelands of the western United States, pronghorns and cattle often associate with one another.
If some of these fleas develop a strong preference for cattle blood and mate only with other fleas
that prefer cattle blood, then over time which of these should occur, if the host mammal can be
considered as the fleas' habitat?
1. reproductive isolation
2. sympatric speciation
3. habitat isolation
4. prezygotic barriers
1 through 4
14) Among known plant species, which of these are the two most commonly occurring
phenomena that have led to the origin of new species?
1. allopatric speciation
2. sympatric speciation
3. sexual selection
2 and 4
15) The origin of a new plant species by hybridization, coupled with accidents during cell
division, is an example of
16) The most likely explanation for the high rate of sympatric speciation that apparently existed
among the cichlids of Lake Victoria in the past is
17) More species are found on subdivided areas due to
After geographic separation, what process would be the last step before reproductive
How can reproductive barriers form between sympatric populations while their members stay
in contact with them?
20) Which of the following descriptions of polyploidy indicate speciation?
D) Allopolyploids mate with each other but cannot interbreed with parent species.
Which one of the following choices describes an advantage of the biological species
describes speciation by the evolution of reproductive isolation
"Conventional wisdom holds that the development of separate species happens quickly, most
often when populations become separated by a geographical barrier." This is called ________
speciation. "Even if these groups meet again and manage to mate before diverging too far from
one another, their offspring will be unfit and die out." This is described as hybrid ________.
23) Which of these phrases describes a stable hybrid zone?
continued production of hybrid individuals
Which mechanism would reverse speciation?
A) increased gene flow
Sexual selection in cichlids occurs by female mate choice and results in reproductive
B) under normal light, each species prefers males of their own species.
26) A hybrid zone is properly defined as
B) an area where mating occurs between members of two closely related species, producing
Which of these should decline in hybrid zones where reinforcement is occurring?
A) gene flow between distinct gene pools
The most likely explanation for the recent decline in cichlid species diversity in Lake
A narrow hybrid zone separates the toad species Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata.
What is true of those alleles that are unique to the parental species?
The alleles' heterozygosity should be higher among the hybrid toads there.
Which of the following activities occurs first in order to begin speciation?
interruption of gene flow between two populations
31) Mechanism of macroevolution works by
multiple acts of speciation on an ancestral organism.
Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) and one-seeded juniper (J. monosperma)
have overlapping ranges. If pollen grains (which contain sperm cells) from one species areunable to germinate and make pollen tubes on female ovules (which contain egg cells) of the
other species, then which of these terms is applicable?
D) occurs when one species splits into two or more species.
1) In which habitat should one find snapping shrimp most closely related to shrimp that live in
Which of these habitats is likely to harbor the youngest species?
Which habitats should harbor snapping shrimp species with the greatest degree of genetic
divergence from each other?
A5 and B5
Which factor is most important for explaining why there are equal numbers of snapping
shrimp species on either side of the isthmus?
the relative shortness of time they have been separated
There are currently two large, permanent bridges that span the Panama Canal. The bridges are
about 8 miles apart. If snapping shrimp avoid swimming at night and avoid swimming under
shadows, then what do these bridges represent for the snapping shrimp?
The Panama Canal was completed in 1914, and its depth is about 50 feet. After 1914,
snapping shrimp species from which habitats should be most likely to form hybrids as the result
of the canal?
A1 and B1
The data in these graphs indicate that
two-way migration of squirrels occurred across the bridge, but without hybridization.
Which species is most closely related to species W?
A) V is most closely related to species W.
Which species is least expected to have a good record of transitional fossils; in other words,
which species' fossils, if present at all, are expected only in relatively superficial (that is,
Which of these five species originated earliest and appeared suddenly in the fossil record?
Which conclusion can be drawn from this evolutionary tree?
A single clade (that is, a group of species that share a common ancestor) can exhibit both
gradualism and punctuated equilibrium.
Which of these five species is the extant (that is, not extinct) species that is most closely
related to species X, and why is this so?
V; shared a common ancestor with X most recently
Which of the following is evidence for allopatric speciation by the formation of the Isthmus of Panama?
Coordination of geological evidence demonstrated species divergence.
A hybrid zone is indicated by plotting the frequency of the yellow-belly allele across the distance
from the center of the hybrid zone. What is the gene frequency of the fire-bellied toad 20 km
from the hybrid zone center?
Two models for the speed of speciation are based on patterns in the fossil record. Which of the
following statements describes the gradual model of evolution?
A) Species steadily diverge from one another.
Which of the following reduces gene flow between the gene pools of the two species on Sao
Tomé, despite the existence of hybrids?
If a speciation event occurred on Sao Tomé, producing D. santomea from a parent colony of
D. yakuba, then which of the following terms applies (apply)?
II allopatric speciation
III. sympatric speciation
I and III
Using only the information provided in the paragraph, which of the following is the best initial
hypothesis for how D. santomea descended from D. yakuba?
You find a plant that is larger than others in your wheat field. When you examine the
chromosomes of this plant during cell division, you observe that the cells have double
chromosome numbers of the other wheat plants. You conclude that this is an autopolyploid plant
representing a new biological species in your wheat field when you observe
A) fertile tetrapods produced by self-pollinating.
The observation that island D. yakuba are more closely related to mainland D. yakuba than
island D. yakuba are to D. santomea is best explained by proposing that D. santomea
D) descended from an original colony of D. yakuba, of which there are no surviving members..
Which of these evolutionary trees represents the situation described in the previous
paragraph? (Note: D. yakuba (I) represents the island population, and D. yakuba (M) represents
the mainland population.)
7) If the low number of hybrid flies in the hybrid zone, relative to the number of D. santomea
flies there, is due to the fact that hybrids are poorly adapted to conditions in the hybrid zone, and
if fewer hybrid flies are produced with the passage of time, these conditions will most likely lead to
Which type of reproductive isolation operates to keep the mosquitofish isolated, even when
fish from different ponds are reunited in the same body of water?
Which two of the following have operated to increase divergence between mosquitofish
populations on Andros?
1. improved gene flow
2. bottleneck effect
3. sexual selection
4. founder effect
5. natural selection
3 and 5
What is the best way to promote fusion between two related populations of mosquitofish, one
of which lives in a predator-rich pond, and the other of which lives in a predator-poor pond?
Build a canal linking the two ponds that permits free movement of mosquitofish, but not of
If one builds a canal linking a predator-rich pond to a predator-poor pond, then what type of selection should subsequently be most expected among the mosquitofish in the original predator-
rich pond, and what type should be most expected among the mosquitofish in the formerly
less-intense directional selection; more-intense directional selection
The predatory fish rely on visual cues and speed to capture mosquitofish. Mosquitofish rely
on speed and visual cues to avoid the predatory fish. Which adaptation(s) might help the
predators survive in ponds that are home to faster mosquitofish?
1. directional selection for increased speed
2. stabilizing selection for speed that matches that of the mosquitofish
3. change in hunting behavior that replaces reliance on visual cues with reliance on tactile cues
4. change in hunting behavior that eliminates speed in favor of better camouflage, which permits
an ambush strategy
1, 3, or 4
In the ocean, on either side of the Isthmus of Panama, are 30 species of snapping shrimp;
some are shallow-water species, and others are adapted to deep water. There are 15 species on
the Pacific side and 15 different species on the Atlantic side. The Isthmus of Panama started
rising about 10 million years ago. The oceans were completely separated by the isthmus about 3
million years ago.
Why should deepwater shrimp on different sides of the isthmus have diverged from each other
earlier than shallow-water shrimp?
A) They have been geographically isolated from each other for a longer time.
The largest unit within which gene flow can readily occur is a
Males of different species of the fruit fly Drosophila that live in the same parts of the
Hawaiian Islands have different elaborate courtship rituals. These rituals involve fighting other
males and making stylized movements that attract females. What type of reproductive isolation
does this represent?
According to the punctuated equilibria model,
most new species accumulate their unique features relatively rapidly as they come into
existence, then change little for the rest of their duration as a species.
Bird guides once listed the myrtle warbler and Audubon's warbler as distinct species.
Recently, these birds have been reclassified as eastern and western forms of a single species, the
yellow-rumped warbler. Which of the following pieces of evidence, if true, would be cause for
The two forms interbreed often in nature, and their offspring survive and reproduce well.
5) Which of the following factors would not contribute to allopatric speciation?
Gene flow between the two populations is extensive.
Plant species A has a diploid number of 12. Plant species B has a diploid number of 16. A new
species, C, arises as an allopolyploid from A and B. The diploid number for species C would
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