A&P unit 3
Terms in this set (104)
ductless gland that secrets hormone
a molecule that is secreted by an endocrine gland as a communication signal
a signal that induces a change in hormone secretion
a change in hormone secretion due to a stimulus
proudctuion of a hormone by the production cell
release of a hormone into the interstitial fluid
portion of the target cell that contacts a hormone and initiates the response
the specific cell in the endocrine gland responsible for porducing a particular hormone
a specific cell that receives and responds to a hormone signal
targt cell action
the action of or change in a target cell that is initiated after the target cell receives the hormone signal
what are the 8 functions of the integumentary system?
-regulation of body temp
-synthesis of vitamin D
tough layers of cells protect the body from abrasion nd water loss
regulation of body temp
-blood supply:contains water and can hold alot of heat
-makes you look pale
-makes blood go to internal organs
-made of 5 sublayers
-deep to the epidermis
-made of 2 sublayers
where is the subcutaneous layer found?
is always found deep to the dermis
what type of tissues makes the epidermis layer?
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
function of epidermis and why its like that
-water resistant: tightly packed lipid dense keratinocytes
-external defense: relatively dry keratinocytes and the salty sweat deposited by the ecronie
-resistnat to abrasion: rightly packed, tough keratinocytes
is the epidermis vascualr or avascular?
- most superifical layer
- provides a water resistant physical barrier that is resistant to abrasion
-found in thick skin
-think dark layer that contains kerahyalin and lamellar granules
thick layer of keratinocytes, contains langerhans cells
-AKA stratum germinativum
- undergoes mitosis
what cells are found in the stratum basale?
-epidermal stem cells
what cells undergo mitosis to produce more keratinocytes
epidermal stem cells
explian mitosis in the stratum basale
-epidermal stem cell divides to porduce 2 daughter cells
-on daughter cells reamins in the stratum basale to continue as an epidermal stem cell
-the other one goes through the process of keratinization as it moves out to the stratum corneum
-makes up the keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
-- most abundant cell type in the epidermis
-found in the stratum basale
-contain melanin protein
-protects the DNA skin cells from damage by UV light
-fixed macrophage located in the stratum spinosum
-sensory touch receptors located in the stratum basale
-send light touch signals to the brain
whats the overall function of the dermis
what two layers make up the dermis?
papillary layer tissue type is _______?
what does the papillary ayer contain?
-free nerve endings
what type of tissue is in the reticular layer
dense irregular CT
what does the reticular layer contain?
dermis vasucular or avascular?
function of papillary layer
provides vascualr support for the epidermis
function of reticular layer
-resisting forces in multpile directions
-provides strength in multiple directions to the skin
-contains extensions that point deep
dermis contains extensions that point superficially up
the __________ __________ contact the _______ ________
what form fingerprints to increase the firmness of grip?
-made of adipose CT
what are the functions of the subcutaneous layer?
-attachment of the skin to underlying tissues
what are the three pigments that skin color is determined by?
-pinkish color to the skin
Lines of celavage
-indicate the predominant direction of collagen fibers in the skin for each area of the body
describe the steps to epidermal wound healing
-epidermal stem cells ENLARGE AND DETACH from basement membrane
-cells migrate to fill in wound
-the cells migration is stopped due to CONTACT INHIBITIOn
-the cells proliferate by mitosis
describe deep wound healing
-inflammatory resposne is triggered: WBC come to clean damaged tissues
-scar tissues forms
-when tissue heals new collagen fibers are more densley arragned
first degree burns
-damage to the epidermis
-ex: mild sunburn
second degree burn
-damage of epiderms and dermis
-ex: blister, edema
third degree burns
-damage all the way to subcutaneous layer
ex: blackened tissue
rules of nine
-quickly asses total burned surface area
-the surface area of body regions can be grouped into multiples of 9%
describe the major functions of the endocrine system
compare and contrst the mechanism nervous and endocrine system role in homeostasis
the ________ the concentration of hormone, the _________the response of the target cells
number of replacement receptors is less
___________ receptros means that the target cell is ________ sensitivie to hormone
if the number of replacement receptors is more
___________ receptors means that the target cell is _________ sensitivie to hormone
down regulation is a response to ???
high hormone concentration
up regulation is a response to ????
low hormone concentration
the interaction with other hormones in the body changes the responsiveness of what?
combined effect of the two hormones is greater than sum of individual effects of each hormone separately
one hormone allows another hormone to have its full effect
two hormones have opposing effects
one hormone stiumulates secretions of anohter gland's hormone
reach their target cells by transport thorugh the blood
reach their targets cells locally
in circulating hormones the target cells are _________ from the endocrine cells that secrete the homrone
list the process of circulating hormones
-trhough the interstitual fluid surrounding the endocrine cells that secrete hormone
-into the blood
-out of the blood
- through the interstitial fluid surrounding the target cells
-to the appropriate hormone receptor
list the process of local hormones
-through the interstitial fluid surrounding the endocrine cells and the target cells
-to the appropriate hormone receptor
-there will be many molecules of hormone that diffuse to locations in the body that do not contain target cells
what are two types of local hormones
-target cells are NEIGHBORING CELLS
target cell is the ENDOCRINE SECRETING CELL
how are hormones classified?
-by the proximity of the target cells of the hormone
-by the chemical class of the hormone
lipid soluble hormones
-require transport proteins as they are carried in the blood
what are types of lipid soluble hormones?
steriod hormones are synthesized from ________
2 benzene rings + iodine
water soluble hormones
do not require transport proteins as they are carried in the blood
what are some types of water soluble hormones?
-contains an amino group
-sunthesized by modification of amino acids
-3-200 amino acids in a polymer
-derived from arachidonic acid
-important local hormones
most of the hormone molecules are associated with TRANSPORT PROTEINS
some of the hormone molecules are NOT associated with TRANSPORT PROTEINS
which fraction is transported in the blood more stably
_________ fraction is able to more easily diffuse out of the blood supply and into the target celwhat happens whe na hormone receptro interaction triggers?
changes in gene expression and metabolism of the cell
T OR F: water coluble hormones cannot cross the membrane as lipid soluble hormones can
the hypothalaums is the link between what two systems?
-cooperates with posterior pituitary gland
hypophyseal portal system
regulates anterior pituitary gland
what attaches the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus?
what are the to regions of the pituitary gland
modified neurons that make hypothalamohypophyseal tract
-synthesize, store, and secrete the hormones
where is the cell body of the neurosecretory cell located?
-hormones are produced
where is the axon terminal of the neurosecretory cell in?
[posterior pituitary gland
-hormones are stored and secreted