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whap key terms ch 16, 17, 18, 19
Terms in this set (56)
North American Revolution
This revolution was conducted by the colonists of North America against British rule. This conservative revolution, which sought to preserve existing liberties, replaced monarchy with a republic and assured property rights; however there was no social freedom outcome from non-white males.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
This document was written by the French National Assembly in 1789. It declared the equal rights of all men. This declaration launched the French Revolution.
This was a massive dislocation of French society that overthrew the monarchy, destroyed much of the French aristocracy, and launched radical reforms of society. This revolution took place in stages and included one of the most commonly known era known as the Terror.
Head of the French state from 1799-1814. He is known for preserving the French Revolution under an aristocratic system that was also responsible for the spread of the revolution's ideals through conquering much of Europe.
This is the only fully successful slave rebellion in world history. The uprising in the French Caribbean colony of Saint Domingue was influenced by the French Revolution and led to the establishment of an independent state. Its first leader was Toussaint L'Ouverture who was a former slave; he wrote the constitution of Haiti and became the first governor of the newly formed state.
Spanish American Revolutions
These were a series of uprisings in the Spanish colonies of Latin America. For the most part, this revolution retained the privileges of the elites despite efforts at more radical social rebellion by lower classes. These states were ultimately unable to unite because of deeply rooted regional identities and their size.
An international movement that occurred between 1780 and 1890 that succeeded in condemning slavery as morally wrong and abolishing it in the majority of the world. This movement was especially notable in Britain and the United States.
Russian revolutionaries that were unsuccessful in their revolt against Tsar Nicholas I; however, this revolt was successful in raising awareness and was the true beginning of the Russian revolution that didn't officially occur until 1912.
The idea that citizens are a part of a "nation" that has its own unique culture, territory, and destiny. This idea also focused on the unity and independence from foreign rule.
Vindication of the Rights of Woman
This was written by Mary Wollstonecraft in 1792 and is considered to be one of the earliest expressions of feminist consciousness.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
This woman attended the Women's Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, New York, and stated that, "all men and women are created equal". She also rewrote the Bible and took out all the parts that she found offensive, and renamed it the Women's Bible.
This was a movement that claimed that women have value in society because women have vital roles as mothers, not because of the notion of equality; it argued that women have a right to intervene in civil and political life because they have a responsibility to watch over the future of their children.
A Javanese woman that was born into an elite family. She attended school up until the age of 12 where she was then taken out and subject to the subordination of Javanese women. She was opposed to the inequality of sexes and racism. She has come to be regarded as a pioneer of both the feminist and nationalist thinking in Indonesia.
The introduction of this item made the industrial revolution possible. It's a mechanical device in which the steam from heated water builds up pressure to drive a piston, rather than relying on human or animal muscle power
Indian cotton textiles
For much of the 18th century, well-made and inexpensive cotton textiles from India flooded the Western markets; the competition stimulated the British textile industry to industrialize, which led to the eventual destruction of the Indian textile market both in Europe and India
Belief system typical of the middle class that developed in Britain in the 19th century; it emphasized hard work, rigid moral behavior, cleanliness, and "respectability"
lower middle class
Social stratum that developed in Britain in the 19th century that consisted of people employed in the service sector as clerks, salespeople, secretaries, and police officers; by 1900, this group compromised about 20% of Britain's population
The most influential proponent of socialism. He was a German but lived in England. He advocated for a working-class revolution as the key to creating an ideal communist future
Scottish textile worker and single mother (1835-1875) who became a published poet with a modest local reputation
British working class political party established in the 1890s and dedicated to reforms and a peaceful transition to socialism, in time providing a viable alternative to the revolutionary emphasis of Marxism
Between 1811-1813, a group of English workers that destroyed machines, burned buildings, and attacked employers to preserve elements of a previous life and revolt against industrialization
socialism in the United States
Fairly minor political movement in the United States, at its height in 1912 gaining 6% of the vote for its presidential candidate
American political movement in the period around 1900 that advocated reform measures to correct the ills of industrialization
Russian Revolution of 1905
Workers in Moscow/St. Petersburg went on strike and created their own representative councils called soviets. The revolt was suppressed but it forced the government to make substantial reforms.
Term used to describe military strongmen who achieved power as defenders of order and property who often succeeded one another
Latin American export boom
Large scale increase in Latin American exports to industrializing countries in the second half of the 19th century and mostly benefitted the upper and middle class
Long, bloody war (1911-1920) in which Mexican reformers from the middle class joined the working class and peasants to overthrow the dictator Porfrio Diaz and created a new, much more democratic order
Term used to describe Latin America's economic growth in the 19th century, which was largely financed by foreign capita; and dependent on European and North American prosperity and decisions
New kind of racism that emerged in the 19th century that increasingly used the prestige and apparatus of science to support European racial prejudices and preferences
Scramble for Africa
Name used for the process of the European nations partition Africa between themselves in the period 1875-1900
Indian Rebellion of 1857-1858
Massive uprising of much of India against British rule, also known as the Indian Mutiny or Sepoy Mutiny
Congo free state/Leopold II
King of Belgium from 1865-1909, he was the private owner of the Congo free state
System of forced labor used in the Netherlands East Indies in the 19th century
Cash Crop agriculture
Agricultural production, large scale of crops for sale rather than consumption by the farmers themselves
A member of the Gikuyu people of East Africa, she witnessed almost the entire 20th century and experienced British colonialism, the coming of Christianity, and the maumau rebellion
The main beneficiaries in Asian and African lands colonized by Western powers; schooled in the imperial power's language and practices
Africanization of Christianity
Process that occurred in non-muslim Africa, where millions who were converted to Christianity sought to maintain older traditions alongside Christian ideas
leading religious figure of 19th century India, advocate of a revived Hinduism and its mission to reach out to the spirituality
prominent west African scholar and political leader (1832-1912) who argued that each civilization, including Africa, has its own unique contribution to make to the world
Massive Chinese rebellion that devastated much of the country between 1850 and 1864; it was based on the millenarian teachings of Hong Xiuquan.
Two wars fought between Western powers and China (1839-1842 and 1856-1858) after Chin tried to restrict the importation of foreign goods; China lost both wars and was forced to make major concessions.
Royal official (1785-1850) charged with ending the opium trade in Canton, his concerted efforts to seize and destroy opium imports provoked the Opium Wars.
Series of nineteenth-century agreements in which China made major concessions to Western powers.
China's program of internal reform in the 1860s and 1870s, based on vigorous application of Confucian principles and limited borrowing from the West.
Attacks by Chinese militia organizations in 1900 in which large numbers of Europeans and Chinese Christians were killed.
Chinese revolution of 1911-1912
The collapse of China's imperial order, officially at the hands of organized revolutionaries but for the most part under the weight of troubles that had overwhelmed the government for the previous half-century.
"the sick man of Europe"
Western Europe's unkind nickname for the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a name based on the sultans' inability to prevent Western takeover of many regions and to deal with internal problems; it fails to recognize serious reform efforts in the Ottoman state during this period.
Important reform measures undertaken in the Ottoman Empire beginning in 1839.
Group of would-be reformers in the mid-nineteenth-century Ottoman Empire that included lower-level officials, military officers, and writers; they urged the extension of Westernizing reforms to the political system.
Sultan Abd al-Hamid II
Ottoman ruler (r. 1876-1909) who accepted a reform constitution but then quickly suppressed it, ruling as a reactionary autocrat for the rest of his long reign.
Movement of Turkish military and civilian elites that developed about 1900, eventually bringing down the Ottoman Empire.
Term commonly used to describe areas that were dominated by Western powers in the nineteenth century but that retained their own governments and a measure of independence, for example, Latin America and China.
Battle of Adowa
Battle in northern Ethiopia between Italian forces with African troops and the Ethiopian army on March 1, 1896. The battle was a decisive victory for the Ethiopians and ensured that Ethiopia retained its independence in an era of rampant European empire building.
Era (1600 to 1868) during which Japan was under the rule of a shogun (military ruler) from particular family. The country was at peace during this time and operated under strict social rules meant to maintain stability.
The political takeover of Japan in 1868 by a group of young samurai from southern Japan. The samurai eliminated the shogun and claimed they were restoring to power the young emperor. The new government was committed to saving Japan from foreign domination by drawing upon what the modern West had to offer to transform Japanese society.
Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905
Ending in a Japanese victory, this war established Japan as a formidable military competitor in the East Asia and precipitated the Russian Revolution of 1905.
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