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History Honors 8th grade Exam-3rd Quarter
Terms in this set (22)
Know about the
In 1863, two companies began a race to build the first transcontinental railroad (it stretches from coast to coast across the whole continent)
Union Pacific started in building the rail line westward from Omaha, Nebraska.
The Central Pacific Railroad began in Sacramento California and built eastward direction.
The government encouraged this by giving out subsidies (financial aid and land grants). Congress lent them money and gave them land. For every mile of track, the companies received 20 sections of land and 40 sections in the territories. The gov't ignored the Indians living on the land.
Labor was scarce during the Civil War. The work was also dangerous, hard and the pay was low.
The companies brought in immigrants from China and Ireland who accepted the low wages. African Americans and Mexican Americans also worked on the railroads.
Through forests, deserts and mountains (blasting to make tunnels).
Completed in May 10 1869
in Promontory, Utah. Solid gold spike to join in ceremony
The RR brought economic growth and new settlements all across the West. Large towns and cities grew where the RR met.
Ability to move raw materials ad and finished goods quickly and cheaply.
Increased the American marketplace and fueled even more factory production
Major impact in the urbanization of the USA
Western terretories began to apply for statehood. Such as Nevada, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington, Montana, Idaho, Wyoming
It showed the benefits of the US free enterprise system. Private investors building and investing in the country. The owners of the RR made money. The employees benefited with employment and the citizens of the towns near the RR experience economic activity and growth.
Ultimately, the RR benefited the country as a whole.
Know what George Westinghouse invented that contributed to railroad transportation
In 1869, George Westinghouse began selling his new air brake.
It allowed locomotive engineer to stop all the railroad cars at once.
The air brake increased safety and allowed for longer, faster trains.
Know about the significance of the Bessemer
--what did it improve and allow to be invented
The first method discovered for inexpensive mass-production of steel.
It enables steel makers to produce strong steel at lower costs.
As a result, railroads began to lay steel rails.
It allowed for the making of steel nails, screws.
***Steel girders supported the great weight of the new "skyscrapers" -- new tall buildings going up in cities.
Know where industrialization was most prevalent
In urban cities where there was cheap labor.
Mostly in the North. Immigrant cheap labor and african americans fleeing the south.
Know terms associated with growth of businesses
Monopoly--controls all or nearly all the business of an industry (ex. Standard Oil trust controlled 95% of all oil refining in US)
A trust--is a group of corporation run by a single board of directors.
Capital--Money raised for a business venture (to start, run, expand a company)
Capitalization--the investment in a company either by lending money to the company or investing money as a part owner (equity investor)
Corporation--a business owned by investors. Laws and court rulings allow corporations to have many rights that individuals also have.
Stock--partial ownership of a company. Issued by companies to raise capital for investments and growth.
Entrepreneur-- a person who organizes and operates a business
Philanthropist--a person who gives money or gifts to charities (or helps needy people in other ways)
Carnegie believed in the "Gospel of Wealth" the rich have a duty to help the poor and improve society.
Be able to describe the difference between
--vertical and horizontal integration
and an example of a Robber Baron who used it
Vertical integrations is the gaining of control of all the steps used to change raw materials into finished products. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration to gain a great advantage over other steel makers.
Know who the Robber Barons were,
-- their industry
--and what caused them to earn that title
Powerful businessmen who were ruthless in their business practices to acquire more wealth and power.
Carnegie--steel in NY and Pittsburgh
Henry Flagler--railroads and Standard Oil
Know the overarching idea behind the name of the era
--The Gilded Age
Gilded Age (1870s-1890s)
Reformers struggled to clean up political corruption.
North and West voted Republican.
South voted Democratic
Main concern was for corruption and the concentrated power of the rich.
Be able to identify what Muckrakers did during the Gilded Age
Journalists who report and expose corruption.
Tarbell -- exposed the unfair practices of big business such as Standard Oil Co and led to demands for controls on large trusts and monopolies.
Sinclair--"The Jungle" is a fiction book that detailed the grisly facts about the meatpacking industry (bad working conditions and unsanitary practices. Led to government passing the Pure Food and Drug and Meat Inspection Act.
Know what the Progressive Movement wanted
By 1900s, reformers were calling themselves Progressives.
Meaning forward thinking people who wanted to improve american life.
They won many changes from (1898 to 1917)-- called the Progressive Era.
Progressives wanted the government to act in the public interest for the good of the people.
Inspired by both religion and science to solve the ills of society.
Progressives valued education.
They wanted voters to participate more directly in government. The called for Primaries to elect candidates by voters.
Other reforms include initiatives, which give the voters the right to put a bill before the state legislatures.
Recalls allowed voters to vote on the removal of an elected official from office.
Know some of the issues associated with the Gilded Age
such as child labor
The demand for labor created a lot of corruption.
Child labor was exploited as well in the big cities.
Children lacked education because they went to work instead of schools. This reduced their chance for a better life as an adult.
Many workers fought back by creating Labor Unions. They went on strike to demand for better pay and safer working conditions.
Be familiar with the details of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire
A fire in a sweatshop factory in March 1911 in NY city.
Workers could not escape the fire because of locked doors.. Nearly 150 people died and it shocked the public..
States approved new safety laws to help protect factory workers.
Know what the
15 Amendments won for African Americans
Know what the
--Jim Crow laws
were and their purpose
Conservatives in the south found ways to repress the black voters.
Jim Crow laws separated blacks and whites in schools, restaurants, hospitals, etc...
Grandfather clause--allowed poor whites who could not pass the literacy tests they ability to vote if their father or grandfather had been able to vote. No African American could vote before 1868, so this gave an advantage to white males.
Poll tax--passed in southern states required voters to pay a fee each time they voted. Poor freedmen could not afford usually.
Know what the South's economy was larger based on
Before the Civil War, planters enjoyed prosperity due to stron demand for tobacco, cotton and other farm products.
After the war, the South faced greater competition from foreign countries that exported their products to the US.
The war had destroyed much of the cities in the South. The enslaved workers were no longer available for cheap labor. There was little money for investment and growth.
The south depended on farming at a time when farming was bringing in less income.
Be familiar with Reconstruction plans
Know what sharecroppers were and why they might be in debt
During the Reconstruction,
Many freedmen and poor whites went to work at large plantations by renting and farming on a plot of land.
Planters provided seed, fertilizer, and tools in exchange for a share of the crop at harvest time.
While it offered independence, it locked sharecroppers into a cycle of poverty.
They received supplies on credit in the spring but had to repay it in the fall.
The harvest products became worth less and less after the Civil War and had trouble paying off their debts.
Know why immigrants left their home country
Immigrants came altering hearing rumors the US streets were "paved with gold"
Came looking for economic opportunities
and to build a better life.
Settles mostly in large cities --indutrial workers.
Know what the Chinese Exclusion Act was and what results it produced
Passed in 1882
It barred Chinese laborers from entering the country. And no Chinese person who left the country could re-enter.
It was the first law to exclude a specific national group from immigrating to the US.
Renewed every 10 years.
Finally repealed in 1943.
Essay: Be able to explain why the 15th Amendment
--why Republicans supported it
--and why it was difficult to enforce
15th amendment passed by Congress in 1869.
It forbids any state to deny any citizen the right to vote because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Republicans supported this amendment for political and moral reasons.
They remembered the sacrifices made by African American during the Civil War. They also felt it was wrong to only allow them to vote in the South but not in the North.
Republicans also believed that the African American vote would help them win more elections.
It allowed all men over the age of 21 the right to vote.
The South still managed to find ways around it. It was difficult to enforce.
The South used poll taxes,, Jim Crow Laws, and grandfather clauses to prevent African Americans from voting.
The poll taxes were fees payed by the voter every time they voted. Poor freedmen could scarcely afford this.
Literacy tests were used to demand that voters pass a test to vote. Poor freedmen without an education could not pass these literacy tests.
The grandfather clause, which allowed voters to skip the literacy test if their fathers or grandfathers had been able to vote. Freedmen did not have ancestors with the abilty to vote.
In this way, the South prevented African Americans from voting in large numbers and secured the vote of the poor white uneducated male.
Essay: Explain how the KKK affected Southern politics.
The Klu Klux Klan (KKK)
worked to keep African
Americans and white Republicans out of office.
It was a secret society.
They threatened and killed hundreds of African Americans and their white allies.
Many moderate southerners condemned the violence of the KKK but were powerless to stop it.
Freedmen asked for the federal government to step in. In 1870, Congress made it a crime to use force to keep people from voting.
This decreased KKK activity but the threat of violence remained.
Essay: Explain why Republicans in Congress disagreed with Johnson's Reconstruction Plans
Republicans in Congress believed President Johnson's plan was too soft on the South.
Repulbicans wanted a strict Reconstruction plan.
Johnson's plan called for the majority in each state to pledge loyalty to the United States. Each state also had to ratify the 13th Amendment, which Congress approved in 1865. It banned slavery throughout the entire nation.
The South agreed to Johnson's plan because it allowed them to elect many officials that had held office during the Confederacy.
The Republicans were outraged that men who had led the South out of the Union were now being elected to the House and Senate. Also, African American were still not allowed to vote.
When the new Congress met, Republican refused to let southern representatives take their seats. Instead they sought to set up a Joint Committee on Reconstruction to form a new plan for the South.
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