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what is cellular respiration
transforming stored chemical energy into a form that a living cell can use
cellular respiration formula
glucose+oxygen->carbon dioxide+water+38 ATPs
cellular respiration occurs in these 3 parts of a cell
cytoplasm, cristae, matrix
what is the cytoplasm
what is the matrix
space inside of the inner membrane
what is the cristae
highly folded inner membrane
first part of cellular respiration is called
glycolysis occurs in the ___________
glycolysis produces ____ ATP?
how are ATPs made in glycolysis?
by substrate level phosphorylation
is oxygen present in glycolysis?
in glycolysis, substrate level phosphorylation begins with ____________
1 molecule of glucose and ends with 2 molecules of pyruvate
second part of cellular respiration is called
citric acid cycle
the citric acid cycle takes place in the _____
the matrix is apart of the ______
the citric acid cycle produces ___ ATPs?
the citric acid cycle produces ATP by _______
substrate level phosphorylation
what energy carrier molecules are produced in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle?
NADH and FADH2
what is the third step of cellular respiration?
where does oxidative phosphorylation take place?
where is the cristae?
in the mitochondria?
energy carriers drop off energy in the form of?
high energy electrons
what is the final electron acceptor?
when the electron joins NAD it forms ____
what is power active transport
energy used by NAD and NADH
power active transport is followed by?
enzyme that facilitated diffusion occurs in?
what is chemiosmosis
process of power active transport, facilitated diffusion and ATP synthase
waste product of cellular respiration
the waste product (CO2) contains ______
the carbons from the original glucose molecule
what are aerobes
organisms that require oxygen and use it during cellular respiration
is oxygen present in the citric acid cycle?
is oxygen present in oxidative phosphorylation?
what are strict anaerobes
organisms that never use oxygen
what are facultative anaerobes
organisms that use oxygen when they have it but can get along without it if necessary
organisms that carry out glycolysis to recycle NADH back to NAD to keep glycolysis going are?
lactic acid fermentation produces
alcoholic fermentation produces
what is photosynthesis
capturing light energy and storing it as chemical energy
energy (from light)+carbon dioxide+water->glucose+oxygen
what are heterotrophs
must ingest food for energy
what are autotrophs
do not ingest food for energy, they make their own food
what are mesophyll cells
specialized cells in plant leaves that carry out photosynthesis
what is inside a mesophyll cell?
what do chloroplasts contain
the pigment chlorophyll
what do veins do in a plant?
carry water to the leaf
allows carbon dioxide to come in through them
stacks of "pennies"
space around the stacks
first step of photosynthesis
second step of photosynthesis
function of light reactions in photosynthesis
capture light energy
function of the Calvin cycle
make sugar molecules
light reactions in photosynthesis occur in the ___
light reactions involve the use of ______
what do the antenna do
capture light energy
what is a photon
a piece of light energy
antenna pass light energy to the _______
what does the reaction center
gather energy and eventually kick a high energy electron to the electron acceptor
captures light energy and uses the energy to make ATP
the electron of photosystem II joins ______
what does photosystem I
captures more light energy than photosystem II and uses it to make NADPH
electrons end up in
in the photosystems, water is ____
split to supply electrons to replace the ones lost from photosystem II
in the photosystems, oxygen is _____
given off as waste
what does the Calvin cycle produce
c3 plants using co2
what part of the plant closes to conserve water?
closing of the stoma can cause the level of ___ to get too low
closing of the stoma can cause the level of ___ to get too high
what is photorespiration
when the stoma closes and the levels of co2 and oxygen are not equal
how do c4 plants avoid photorespiration?
store co2 compound until needed
when do CAM plants open their stoma?
CAM plants conserve ____
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