58 terms

Chap 3 & 4 Microbiology DOOR Cards

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Plasmid
Piece of DNA used to transfer genes "horizontally", even between species
Axial filament or Endoflagellum
Structure for movement found only in spirochetes
Peritrichous
Term for flagella all around the bacteria
Wax
Mycobacteria have unusual high amount of this in their cell wall
Acid Fast
Type of stain used to identify presence of Mycobacteria (TB, leprosy, etc.)
Cocci
Type of bacteria that can NOT have flagella
Lysozyme
Name of antibacterial enzyme found in tears & saliva.
2nd - What type of bacteria is it most effective against?
3rd - What is the mechanism - how does the enzyme work?
GP
What type of bacteria is penicillin most effective against?
2nd - What is the mechanism that explains its effectiveness?
Thin peptide, outer membrane, porins, periplasm w/degradative enzymes, LPS, endotoxins
GN cell walls are very different than GP. Describe a specific characteristic of a GN wall.
Techoic acids, thick peptido,
GP cell walls are very different than GN. Describe a specific characteristic of a GP wall.
Endospore & AFB
What 2 types of stains should only be done if the organism is a GPR?
Pilus, pili
Structure through which an extrachromosomal piece of DNA can be passed to another bacteria.
Fimbrae, or capsule
External structure used for adherence
Amphitrichous
Term when 1 or more flagella are present at each pole
Lophotrichous
Term when there is more than 1 flagella at ONE pole
Answer: Increased virulence - evade phagocytosis, adherence, prevent dehydration
Name 1 or more benefits a bacteria gains with a capsule
Made of EPS - Extracellular polysaccharide & polypeptide polymer
AKA - Glycocalyx
Capsule:
What is it made of?
What is another name for it?
Negative Stain - usually in combo w/pos stain - capsule will be clear area between stained organism and stained background.
Describe the method used to identify the presence of a capsule
Positive stain w/heat
Describe the staining method for presence of endospores
Inclusion
What organelle will give an appearance similar to an endospore in a positive stain
Crystal violet
What is the primary stain in a gram stain?
What is the appearance of GP cells after this step?
What is the appearance of GN cells after this step?
Explain the appearance of both GP & GN after this step.
Iodine
What is the mordant in a gram stain?
How does the mordant work?
What is the appearance of GP cells after this step?
What is the appearance of GN cells after this step?
Explain the appearance of both GP & GN after this step.
Alcohol
What is the decolorizer in a gram stain?
What is the appearance of GP cells after this step?
What is the appearance of GN cells after this step?
Explain the appearance of both GP & GN after this step.
Safranin
What is the secondary stain in a gram stain?
What is the appearance of GP cells after this step?
What is the appearance of GN cells after this step?
Explain the appearance of both GP & GN after this step.
GN - LPS, endotoxins
Are GP or GN bacteria more likely to cause shock & fever when treatment is first started?
Explain why
Binary Fission
Bacteria reproduce asexually. What is the specific term used to describe this method?
None, or pseudomurein
Describe the cell wall of archaea
Protect from adverse conditions - dehydration, heat, antibiotics, etc.
Terms- central, terminal
Stain - positive stain with heat
Endospores:
Purpose?
Location terms?
How stain?
Mycobacterium, TB, leprosy
What organism(s) are identified by an Acid Fast Stain?
Endospore, Inclusion
Name 1 of the 2 main causes of CLEAR areas INSIDE a bacteria on a positive stain
**Name?
**Purpose
**Effect on osmosis
Hypertonic
**Type of environment?
**Net water flow direction?
**Effect on cells?
**Exceptions?
Hypotonic
**Type of environment?
**Net water flow direction?
**Effect on cells?
**Exceptions?
Isotonic
**Type of environment?
**Net water flow direction?
**Effect on cells?
**Exceptions?
Ribosomes
Ribosomes:
**Specific difference pro vs. eukaryotic
**Purpose/function in both types of cells
Chromosomes
Specific differences pro vs. eukaryotic?
SEM - 3D
What type of scope used for this picture?
How do you know?
Chromatophore
Chromatophore:
**Function?
**Relationship to eukaryotic cells?
Mito & Chloro
2 main eukaryotic organelles used to provide evidence for the Endosymbiotic Theory?
**Organelle name?
Evidence w/I the organelle?
Active vs. diffusion
Describe how active transport differs from diffusion
Simple vs. facilitated
Simple diffusion vs. Facilitated diffusion
**Describe a similarity
**Describe a difference
Gram negative cell wall
**Type of Cell Wall on Right?
**How do know? (What do you see?)
Gram positive cell wall
Is this a GN or GP cell wall?
How do you know?
Facilitated Diffusion
What type of transport is pictured?
How do you know?
Active Transport
What type of transport?
How do you know?
Active Transport
What type of transport?
How do you know?
Ocular lens
Name this microscope part
Objective lenses
Name of these 3 structures
Condenser
Name this structure
Stage
Name this part
Coarse focus
Name this part
Negative stain
Type of stain
Explain mechanism
Positive stain
Type of stain
Explain mechanism
Gram positive
GP or GN?
Morphology?
Arrangement?
Gram negative
GP or GN?
Morphology?
Capsule
Name this structure
Type of stain used?
Endospore
Malachite green stain with heat was used.
Name the green structures.
Nucleoid region
Where in the cell is a bacteria's chromosome found?
Syphilis,
Darkfield microscopy - Name an organism or specific disease this type of microscopy is used for.
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