Terms in this set (67)
Carbon dioxide in the air
Where do plants get their carbon from?
O2 (oxygen), NADPH, and ATP Energy
Products of light reactions are?
Glucose and Oxygen
Products of photosynthesis are?
Sustain themselves. Do not usually consume organic molecules derived from other organisms. Make their own food through the process of photosynthesis, in which they convert CO2 and H2O into sugars and other organic molecules.
Sugar is used to make energy. Oxidizes to form sugars.
Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis.
Transfer of electrons (gain of electrons = reduction, loss of electrons = oxidation)
Reduces CO2 in order to form sugar.
Excites the electrons.
Openings in the leaf.
Protects us from UV Radiation.
Occurs or is located between Photosynthesis 1 and Photosynthesis 2.
Makes G3P which then makes sugars.
A product of photosynthesis that comes from water (H2O).
The jelly inside the chloroplasts.
Use the energy of the light to produce organic molecules. They use photosynthesis in order to make food. They feed, clothe, and house us. They provide energy for warmth, light, transport, and manufacturing.
What are the products of the Calvin Cycle?
G3P and Sugar
Where is chlorophyll found?
In the plant leaf; inside the thylakoid membrane
Found in the mesophyll (cells that are specialized for photosynethesis)
Filled with stroma (thick fluid)
Transforms light energy into ATP
Controls the exchange of CO2 and O2
located in the chloroplasts
Arranged in stacks called grana
Thylakoid membranes contain chlorophyll
located in thylakoids
Chlorophyll a reflects green light
Can release energy in the form of heat, light or florescence
Can pass energy to the reaction centers
The reason plants are green. Reflects green light.
Releases oxygen obtained from water molecules
6CO2 + 6H2O —> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Reactants of Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis - Light Reactions
Occur in the stroma (thick gel) located in the thylakoid membrane
Photons (packets of light energy) energize electrons
Light excites an electron from photosystem II
Electrons pass through an electron transport chain, which generates a H+ gradient used to make ATP
Light excites an electron from phosystem I
Electrons reduce NADP+ to NADPH
Electrons are gained here by the splitting of H2O (in the reaction center)
Phosystem II passes electrons to Phosystem I via the electron transport chain (replace lost electrons)
During this transfer, NADP+ is reduced to NADPH
AKA The Calvin Cycle
GP3 (energy rich molecule that is used to make glucose
Sugar synthesis is powered by ATP and NADPH
To produce 1 glucose, the calvin cycle must run 6 times
Release of G3P
Regeneration of RuBP
The addition of oxygen instead of carbon dioxide to RuBP
Most angiosperms are
point of leaf attachment
Increase surface area of roots to increase uptake
Protects and spreads seeds
Does not contain or transport water or nutrients
Contains and transports xylem sap
Protect the bud
House ovules that can develop into seeds
Produces female gametophytes
Part of the male organ
Give rise to sperm
Surround stomata and control the exchange of CO2 and O2
Closes stomata when water loss is a concern
Stomata open when K+ enters, allowing water to flow, cells become turgid
Starch storing cells
Located between the epidermis and vascular cylinder
Ground Tissue System
Tissue that is neither dermal or vascular
In the leaf this is called mesophyll
Pith (parenchyma cells)
Important in food storage
Have sieve tube elements
Fluids are pushed to various parts of the plants, controlled by concentration gradients
Water molecules pull each other along (transpiration)
Casparian strip regulates what enters the xylem
Specialized growth tissue
Primary growth (height) occurs in apical meristem
Secondary growth (width) occurs in lateral meristem
Photosynthesis occurs here
Provide structural support
Sperm travels through the pollen tube that grows from the pollen grain through the carpel tissues to the ovule
Eggs and sperm have the same number of chromosomes
Results in the development of ovules containing fertilized eggs from the endosperm
remain in the soil and decompose after the plant starts growing
Genetically identical organisms that are produced during asexual reproduction
Water uptake through roots
Intercellular ion transportation
Taken up by roots
Moves cell to cell via plasmodesmata
Water loss due to evaporation
Where the sugar is being made
Roots in the spring, leaves in the summer
Where the sugar is being stored (used)
Main nutrient supply for plants
Cofactors used in reactions
Organic material (broken down by bacteria and fungi
In order for plants to use nitrogen is must be converted into ammonia
Sometimes this occurs because of a mutualistic relationship called mycorrihizae
Legumes have a mutualistic relationship with nitrogen - fixing bacteria
Venus fly trap
Grow where organic matter decays slowly
Harms its host
Reduces the overuse of fertilizer by showing early symptoms of deficiencies
Genetically modified plants can be cultured by inserting foreign genes into another plant
Uses fewer synthetic pesticides