" More than the absence of disease
" Holistic approach
" Continuum, dynamic
" Throughout the lifespan
o Health: state of being free from illness or injury
o Wellness: state of complete physical, mental, & social well-being
o Preventative Medicine: specialty of medical practice that focuses on health of individuals, communities, & defined populations
" Goal: protect, promote, & maintain health & well-being & to prevent disease, disability, & death
o Health Promotion: process of enabling people to increase control over/improve their health
" Individual, social, & environmental interventions
o Disease Prevention: focuses on prevention strategies to reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases & other morbidities
Major goals of Healthy People 2020: incorporate prevention, access to care, tx, f/u
-Attain high quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, & premature death
-Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, & improve the health of all groups
-Create social & physical environments that promote good health for all
-Promote quality of life, healthy development, & healthy behaviors across all life stages
**to target the major determinants of health (not including policy): biology/genetics, access to health care, social environment, individual behavior, physical envirnoment
Obesity- 36% males, 40% females
-Risk fx: genetics, family lifestyle, sedentary lifestyle, SES, age, & medication problems
Substance Abuse- 22 mil
-Risk fx: genetics, family history, SES, age, psychological problems
Tobacco Use - 15%, or 36 mil
-Healthy people: to reduce illness, disability, & death related to tobacco use & secondhand smoke exposure.
Injuries (the most commonly occurring injuries = unintentional fall
Oral health - 46% w/ gingival disease
-Brush your damn teeth.
-Cavities, blah blah.
- Sexual health (WHO, 2002)-state of physical, emotional, mental, & social well-being in relation to sexuality; it is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction, or infirmary.
- Sexual health (CDC)-state of well-being in relation to sexuality across the life span that involves physical, emotional, mental, social, & spiritual dimensions.
- Sexual health requires a positive & respectful approach to sexuality & sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable & safe sexual experiences, free of coercion, discrimination, & violence.
Risk Factors: anything that increases the likelihood of developing a condition or event (personal characteristics, physical parameters, symptoms, preclinical disease states)
-Modifiable - lifestyle or behavior factors
Risk Assessment: collecting information about risk factors, uniquely tailored to the patient; allows us to provide preventative health services
-How serious is the condition?
-How common is the risk factor?
-What is the magnitude of risk associated with the risk factor?
-How accurately can the risk factor be detected?
-What can we do about the risk?
-How does the condition being assessed compare against other health priorities?
How can risk be ID thru hx, PE, & screening / dxs tests?
-Physical exam: vital signs, vision, hearing, PE
-Patient history: Primary and exploratory questioning (see definitions below)
-Screening & dxs studies: Labs, imaging, CA screening, which measure are done based on one's own risk
-Don't shotgun screen people
-Based on individuals risk to reduce the rate of false (+)
-Starts at home, community, schools and work
-"4 social determinants of health": education, economic stability, neighborhood/environment, social context one lives in
-Natural environment: air pollution, asbestus, lead
--SUPERFUNDS: designation which helps communities to conduct removal actions bc environmental risk, purpose: enforce potentially responsible parties, helps them accountable, involves community into remediation efforts
--Built environment: access to healthy foods, access to safe affordable housing
---Food desert vs. food swamp
--Social cohesion (^^ social cohesion —> lower crime, incarceration, violence)
--education—> health literacy, type of job, sense of control/social standing/social support