38 terms

HDFS 5123 - Chapter 13 - Social & Moral Development

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Terms in this set (...)

social cognition
the processes by which people come to understand others
false belief task
used to assess understanding that people can hold incorrect beliefs and be influenced by them
theory of mind
ability to reason about what other people know or believe; people's ideas about their own and others' mental states
desire psychology
explain own and others behaviors in terms of what they want or desire
belief-desire psychology
Children progress to appreciate that people do what they do because they desire certain things and because they believe that certain actions will help them fulfill their desires
mirror neurons
neurons that activate both when an action is performed and when the same action is perceived
perspective-taking skills
the ability to understand how a situation appears to other people; same as role-taking skills
role-taking skills
the ability to adopt another person's perspective and understand her thoughts and feelings
morality
involves the ability to distinguish right from wrong, to act on this distinction and to experience emotions like pride when we do the right things and guilt or shame when we do not.
empathy
vicarious experiencing of another person's feelings; Identification with and understanding of another's situation, feelings, and motives;
the ability to understand and share the feelings of another
prosocial behavior
positive social acts, such as helping or sharing, that reflect concern for the welfare of others; positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior;
antisocial behavior
behavior that violates social norms, rules or laws and often involves harming other people or society
moral reasoning
the thinking process involved in deciding whether an act is right or wrong
preconventional morality
Kohlberg;
Before age 9, children show morality to avoid punishment or gain reward. Punishment and Obedience Orientation; Instrumental hedonism
conventional morality
Kohlberg;
uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain social order; focus on societal values; Good boy or Good girl morality; Authority and Social Order- Maintaining Morality
postconventional morality
Kohlberg;
behavior is governed by moral principles that have been decided on by the individual; Morality of Contract, Individual rights, and democratically accepted law; Morality of Individual principles of conscience
reciprocity
mutual exchange;
the obligation to return in kind what another has done for us; The Golden Rule; Conventional morality
moral disengagement
rationalizing immoral behavior as legitimate, as a way of justifying one's own bad acts;
allows us to avoid condemning ourselves when we engage in immoral behavior
amoral
lacking a sense of right and wrong
delay of gratification
waiting for an appropriate time and place to engage in a tempting act;
putting off a pleasurable experience in the interest of some larger but later reward
self-control
the ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards;
the ability to control impulses and delay gratification
mutually responsive orientation
a close, emotionally positive, and cooperative relationship in which child and caregiver care about each other and are sensitive to each other's needs
moral rules
standards that focus on the welfare and basic rights of individuals
social conventional rules
standards determined by social consensus that tell us what is appropriate in particular social settings/contexts
love withdrawl
withholding attention, affection, or approval after a child misbehaves
power assertion
the use of physical punishment or coercion to enforce child discipline
induction
explaining to a child why the behavior is wrong and should be changed by emphasizing how it affects other people
proactive parenting strategies
tactics designed to prevent misbehavior and therefore reduce the need for correction or discipline
moral identity
the degree to which morality is central to self-concept
juvenile delinquency
a violation of law or the commission of a status offense by young people
conduct disorder
patterns of behavior in which the rights of others or basic social rules are violated
hostile attribution bias
the tendency to interpret ambiguous interactions with others as deliberately hostile
coercive family environment
home life consisting of power struggles between family members
bullying
scaring or controlling another person by using threats or physical force;
deliberately harming or threatening other people who cannot easily defend themselves
positive youth development (PYD)
an approach to finding ways to help all young people reach their full potential; emphasizes the strengths of youth; Competence, confidence, character, connection, and caring
dual-process model of morality
Haidt/Greene proposed that both thought and intuition/emotion play distinct roles in moral dilemmas or moral reasoning; switch and footbridge dilemmas
religiousness
sharing the beliefs and participating in the practices of an organized religion
spirituality
harder to define; involves a quest for ultimate meaning and for a connection with something greater than oneself, whether God, love, nature or some other cosmic force.
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