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APUSH Chapter 35
Terms in this set (59)
1. What was the fundamental strategic decision of World War II that was made by President Roosevelt and British prime minister Churchill at the very beginning of the war?
- Roosevelt and Churchill prioritized the war in
Europe and placed the Pacific war against Japan on
the back burner.
2. All of the following were true of the experience of Japanese Americans in the United States during World
War II EXCEPT that
- near the conclusion of World War II, the U.S.
Supreme Court declared internment of Japanese
Americans to be unconstitutional and ordered
them freed from internment camps.
3. How was inflation kept in check by the U.S. government despite the demands of the wartime economy?
The U.S. government imposed wage and price controls throughout the U.S. economy.
4. All of the following characterized labor relations with business and government during World War II
a takeover by radical elements in several prominent labor unions to demand an end to government dictated wage ceilings.
5. What was one outcome of the employment of more
than 6 million women in American industry during
World War II?
The wartime establishment of child-care centers by
6. All of the following characterized the experience of
African Americans during World War II EXCEPT
fighting in integrated combat units.
7. What crucial strategic mistake did the Japanese make in 1942 that doomed their attempt to control most of the Pacific?
The Japanese overextended themselves at Midway
and in the Battle of the Coral Sea instead of digging
in and consolidating their previous gains.
8. Which of the following best characterizes the primary U.S. strategy in its war against Japan?
The United States engaged in island hopping
across the South Pacific, while bypassing Japanese
9. Which of the following is NOT true about the European theater of war from 1941 to 1945?
President Roosevelt fulfilled his promise to the
Soviets to open a second front in Western Europe
by the end of 1942.
10. What effect did Roosevelt's and Churchill's declaration in January 1942 that the Allies would demand the absolute and unconditional surrender of Germany have on the ultimate course of the war?
It guaranteed that Germany would have to be
totally reconstructed and politically reorganized
after the war.
11. What was the most significant development in the
Democratic convention of 1944?
Roosevelt's third-term liberal vice president,
Henry Wallace, was dumped by Roosevelt in favor
of Senator Harry Truman.
12. What was the outcome of the Potsdam conference in July 1945?
An ultimatum was issued to Japan to surrender or
13. Historians have offered all of the following scholarly criticisms of the momentous decision to drop the atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima EXCEPT that
vigorous dissent from high levels of the American
government was ignored and repudiated by President
14. World War II integrated Native Americans into daily life and the war effort in all of the following ways
being appointed to government offices.
15. One way in which World War II affected the United
States and its allies differently was that
the U.S. economy prospered while its allies suffered financially.
The fundamental American strategic decision of World War II was to
attack Germany first, while using just enough strength to hold off Japan.
The major exception to the relatively good American civil liberties record during World War II was the harsh treatment of
Wartime inflation and shortages of crucial goods were kept partly in check by
government price controls and rationing
The Bracero Program, created by the federal government during World War II, was aimed to
relieve the agricultural labor shortage by bringing in temporary workers from Mexico.
Compared to British and Soviet women during and after World War II, American women
were less likely to work for wages in the wartime economy
The Fair Employment Practices Commission was designed to
prevent discrimination against blacks in wartime industries
The wartime migration of rural southern African Americans to northern and western urban factories was dramatically accelerated after the war by the invention of
the mechanical cotton picker.
Besides African Americans, another traditionally rural group, which used service in the armed forces as a springboard to postwar urban life was
The 1942 battles of Bataan and Corregidor in the Philippines marked the beginning of
brutal tropical warfare in which atrocities were committed on both sides
The essential American strategy in the Pacific called for
island hopping by capturing only the most strategic Japanese bases and bypassing the rest.
The U.S.-British demand for unconditional surrender of Germany and Japan was
a sign of the Western Allies' eagerness to reassure the Soviets in the absence of a Second Front.
The American conquest of Guam and other islands in the Marianas in 1944 was especially important because it
made possible round-the-clock bombing of Japan from land bases.
The most difficult and brutal European fighting for American forces through most of 1943 occurred in
Hitler's last-ditch effort to stop the British and American advance in the west occurred at the Battle of
The second American atomic bomb was dropped on the Japanese city of
U.S.-owned Pacific archipelago seized by Japan in the early months of World War II
Controversial U.S.-British demand on Germany and Japan that substituted for a second front
Site of 1943 Roosevelt-Churchill conference in North Africa, at which the Big Two planned the invasion of Italy and further steps in the Pacific war
Iranian capital where Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met to plan D-Day in coordination with Russian strategy against Hitler in the East
The beginning of the Allied invasion of France in June 1944
Battle of the Bulge
The December 1944 German offensive that marked Hitler's last chance to stop the Allied advance
Iwo Jima and Okinawa
The last two heavily defended Japanese islands conquered by the United States near end of World War II in 1945
The top-secret project to develop the atomic bomb
A U.S. minority that was forced into concentration camps during World War II
War Production Board
A federal agency that coordinated U.S. industry and successfully mobilized the economy to produce vast quantities of military supplies
WAACS and WAVES
Women's units of the army and navy during World War II
Government arrangement whereby substantial numbers of Mexican workers were temporarily brought into the United States to provide agricultural labor
Rosie the Riveter
Symbolic personification of female laborers who took factory jobs in order to sustain U.S. production during World War II
Fair Employment Practices Commission
The federal agency established to guarantee opportunities for African American employment in World War II industries
America's major strategic decision in World War II was to attack Japan first, while holding off Hitler's Germany until later.
A substantial minority of Americans, particularly those of German, Japanese, and Italian descent, opposed American entry into World War II.
Government-run rationing and wage-price controls contributed to America's ability to meet the economic challenges of the war.
New sources of labor such as women and Mexican braceros helped overcome the human-resources shortage during World War II.
World War II stimulated massive black migration to the North and West and encouraged black demands for greater equality.
A majority of women who worked in wartime factories stayed in the labor force after the war ended.
American citizens at home had to endure serious economic deprivations during World War II.
The Japanese navy established its domination of the Pacific sea-lanes in the 1942 battles of Coral Sea and Midway.
The American strategy in the Pacific was to encircle Japan by flank movements from Burma and Alaska.
While their Soviet ally was still reeling from Hitler's invasion in the first years of the war, Britain and the United States bore the heaviest burden of Allied ground fighting and casualties.
By pushing for complete conquest and total destruction of the German government, the Allied policy of unconditional surrender guaranteed that Germany's economy and society would have to be rebuilt from the ground up after the war.
At the Teheran Conference in 1943, Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt planned the D-Day invasion and developed the final strategy for winning the war.
Liberal Democrats rallied to dump Vice President Henry Wallace from FDR's ticket in 1944 and replace him with Senator Harry S Truman.
Franklin Roosevelt's death caused a period of hesitation in the Allied war effort and raised German hopes of a negotiated settlement of the war.
The United States modified its demand for unconditional surrender by allowing Japan to keep its emperor, Hirohito.
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