26 terms

Important Supreme Court Cases

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Marbury v. Madison (1803)
__________ - case in which the Supreme Court established the power of judicial review.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
__________ - case in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregation was constitutional.
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
__________ - case in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregated schools were unconstitutional.
In re Gault (1966)
__________ - case in which the Supreme Court ruled that juveniles have the same rights as adults accused of crimes.
Gideon v. Wainwright
__________ - case in which the Supreme Court ruled that you have a right to an attorney. If you cannot afford one, one will be provided for you.
Miranda v. Arizona
__________ - case in which the Supreme Court ruled that when arrested, you must be told your rights.
Tinker v. Des Moines
__________ - case in which the Supreme Court ruled that students in school have a first amendment right to free speech as long as their speech isn't disruptive to the educational environment of the school.
Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier
__________ - case in which the Supreme Court ruled that students' free speech rights are not unlimited.
U.S. v. Nixon
__________ - case in which the Supreme Court ruled that Executive privilege is not unlimited.
Bush v. Gore
__________ - case in which the Supreme Court ruled that the Florida recount of 2000 presidential votes unconstitutional.
Civil rights
__________ - the basic rights of citizens to be free from unequal treatment based on certain characteristics (e.g., race, gender,
disability)
Discriminate
__________ - to treat a person or group unfairly based on their race, religion, gender, disability, or other reasons.
Equal Protection Clause
__________ - the section of the Fourteenth Amendment that says that states must apply the law equally and
cannot discriminate against citizens or groups of citizens.
Judicial review
__________ - the power of the judicial branch to review the actions of the executive and legislative branches and determine whether or not they are unconstitutional (this includes laws passed by Congress); the U.S. Supreme Court case Marbury v.
Madison established this power.
Unconstitutional
__________ - not in agreement with the U.S Constitution.
Due process
__________ - the right of people accused of crimes to have laws that treat them fairly, so that they cannot lose their life or freedom without having their legal rights protected.
Separate but equal
__________ - the concept that having separate facilities for African-Americans and white people was not illegal as long as the facilities were equal, from the U.S. Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson.
Juvenile
__________ - a person under the age of 18 years old
Civil liberties
__________ - rights guaranteed by the laws of a country, (i.e., the Bill of Rights)
Executive privilege
__________ - the belief that the conversations between the president and his aides are confidential.
District of Columbia v. Heller
__________ - U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld that the Second Amendment protects an individual's
right to own a firearm.
5th
Which Amendment protects a person from being forced to tell the police, prosecutor, judge, or jury any information that might subject him or her to criminal prosecution (self incrimination)?
Freedom of expression
__________ - the rights included in the First Amendment: freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom to assemble peacefully, and freedom to have your own religious beliefs.
Precedent
__________ - a court decision in an earlier case with facts and legal issues similar to those in a case currently before a court.
Rights of the accused
__________ - the rights included in the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Amendments: protection from unreasonable search and seizure, double jeopardy, and self-incrimination, the right to due process, right to a speedy and public trial, trial by jury, the right to be informed of criminal charges, right to confront witnesses in court, right to an attorney, protection from self incrimination.
Right to bear arms
__________ - the idea in the Second Amendment that people have an individual right to own and carry weapons.