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SOCI Mid Term Terms
Terms in this set (65)
An idea or practice that a group of people agree exists. It is maintained over time by people taking its existence for granted
an ongoing maintenance of social system, adherence of individuals and groups to generally accepted behaviors.
expectations about behavior in any given social situation
process in which a norm is internalized, and often naturalized, through interactions with institutions, groups and other individuals in a society
Agency and Structure debate
Free will vs social determinism
" How do we either perpetuate or challenge dominant society?
" In what ways can/do we reinforce social structure
" In what ways do we resist social structure?
Transformation of major social institutions, behaviors, or relations in the society
Father of sociology as a discipline because he wanted to make it more of a science.
Modernity is the rise of nationalism, individualism, and industrialization.
Marx vs Durkheim
Durkheim: what do people produce and how do they produce it? (Labor divisions)
Marx: how are they owned and controlled? (Class divisions)
Argues that the development of western capitalism was unique and derived from specific ideas and values.
The Iron cage
The Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism
Macro Level analysis. Encourages researchers to look for underlying/hidden structures and their effects.
Critique: does not account for social change and tends to justify inequality.
Conflict Theory (Critical Theory)
Macro level analysis.
Theories under this umbrella: Feminist theory, Queer theory, Theories of racism
Critique: very deterministic. Assumes we are unthinking masses
Micro level analysis.
George Herbert Mead (social development of self), Erving Goffman (dramaturgy, stigma).
Concerned with the every day
Interactionist, symbolic (body language, etc)
Analyze the process of meaning-making between individuals and small groups
Critique: limited in scope and application
a set of propositions that allow for the systemization of knowledge. Theories contain a what, why, how?
explanations of social phenomenon based on empirical research and analysis
orientation of theory. Help interpret the world.
Causal analytical orientation
orientation of theory. Causes and consequences of social actions
theories should change the world (what ought to be)
Ethnographies -> scale up. Interviews and focus groups. Strengths: rich in detail. Limits: small group on subjects, findings can be difficult to generalize.
Statistical Analysis: Analyze the relationship between and independent variable and a dependent variable in a data set
Limitations: leaves out nuances, missing important social detail
Broken Windows Theory
Generalizable (sociological research)
Use limited data to make more general claims that reach beyond the sample
Replicable (sociological research)
you need to explain you research in a way so that someone could do something similar
Scientifically valid (sociological research)
appropriate sample, questions, theory, method
impact of the researcher and the research on the results of a study
As a physics PhD student Kuhn started to question the narrative of science as cumulative, as a body of knowledge that is always growing
1.) the entire constellation of beliefs, values, techniques shared by the members of a given community and
2.) The concrete puzzle-solutions, which, employed as models or as examples, define what is and what puzzles there are to be solved
3.) a worldview that makes it easier for us to think less
new way of seeing things
Never ends, always re-evaluating, always changing paradigms
Kuhn's history of scientific revolutions
Changes how we think of scientific discoveries - not a single event, but a process
Changes how we think about how scientists do science.
values, norms, and material goods characteristic of a group
The physical objects that a society creates that influence the ways people live. How do we study culture: language, symbols, semiotics.
cultural turn in sociology
1970's. Emphasized role of culture in daily life. Cultural scripts - what we've seen before/what we know that takes part in dictating how we act.
The script we choose, and whether we succeed or fail may say something about our social role in society
Anne Swidler - culture toolkit
Culture as a toolkit of symbols, stories, rituals, and worldviews with different scripts to draw from to construct different strategies of action. We experience different realities of the same events based on cultural symbol and meanings
The police or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically.
goes beyond the initial struggle. It is a process of breaking from te power of your oppressor and creating a new , free nation.
Restoring cultural processes, thinking, beliefs
Decolonization is not over
the acceptance of a minority group by the majority population in which the minority group takes on the values and norms of dominant culture.
Americans forcing immigrants to learn English language and American history
a condition where ethnic groups exist separately but harmoniously and equally
seeing other cultures through one's cultural lense, giving primacy to one's own culture
judging societies on their own standards.
One critique is that this ignores ethics
Example: some would argue that female genital mutilation is always bad and should not be excused in the context of culture
the idea that all of our geographic areas are becoming less and less divided: Global Economy, Global citizens, International organizations, Electronic communications
Culture in common (universals)
Language, Material means of production, Family system
deep pride in one's own culture/society
Manifested through TV, institutions, politicians, etc.
"Born to Buy" - Juliet Schor
overworked American, cycle of work-spend, children socialized as consumers
Americans work more than other similar societies
Rise of corporations. Influence of corporate culture
Salary not hourly
Idea that the way to advance is to spend more time at work
cycle of work-spend
Rising accumulation, increasing cost and debt
The process by which we act and react to those around us
Focused and unfocused
Interactions at the individual level, daily life, routines
Focuses on performance
Erving Goffman- Presentation of Self in Everyday
What can knowledge is gained from the individual interaction, and how?
'expressiveness of the individual' = giving and giving off. information game.
Attention Economy (Morgans 2015)
Technology companies competing for our attention. Commodified by views, downloads, time spent on their site.
Fisher- 'Audience Labour'
Users creating vast majority of content
Producing by posting, sending messages, etc.
Audiences in mass media
consumption of the meanings in mass media
Audiences in social media
audiences engaged in production
Cement social life
Roles norms values arrangement that organize stable patterns of human activity
Enduring social systems of order and control
The activity by which people produce from the natural world to sustain survival
Five Stages of Capitalism
1.) family capitalism - entrepreneurial families and family businesses
2.) managerial capitalism - managerial executives rather than owners
3.) welfare capitalism: large corporations protect employees from uncertainties
4.) institutional capitalism
5.) global capitalism
system of mass production tied to mass consumer markets
industrial operations informed by science to increase efficiency
Differences b/w Fordism and post-Fordism
Post Fordism: new era in capitalist production where flexibility and innovation are maximized to meet market demands
a few firms dominate industry
Trying to prevent a bunch of companies from forming too many interrelations, too much power
Marx- Estranged Labour
alienation, different relationships of estrangement/alienation
Dehumanizing relationships of work and capitalism where work is an alien process that does not belong to the worker
different relationships of estrangement/alienation
Workers and labor
Worker and nature
Workers and workers
Worker and their species
Marx's critique of classic economic theory
Does not question relationships between private property, divisions of labor, etc
Does not account for individual differences/inequality
two adults living in a house with children
Monogamy and children
Functionalism (Parsons) (in family)
what are the functions of family in society?
1.) primary socialization: children learn cultural norms
2.) personality stabilization: critical role of family in emotional support and health
Critique: traditional nuclear family is what sustains this
Feminist critiques of traditional family roles
feminist critiques of traditional family/roles of women?
In additions or instead of love, companionship and comfort.
Family is a site of exploitation, loneliness and inequality
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