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BOTANY: PLANT TISSUES, ROOTS AND STEMS
Terms in this set (89)
All plant has the same _____ body plan
- generally underground
- anchors the plants
do not develop woody parts above the ground
herbaceous plants that grow, reproduce and die in 1 season
2 years to complete their life cycle
live for more than 2 years
one kind of cell
two or more cells
three tissue system
- extends throughout the plant body
- composed of: ground, vascular, dermal
ground tissue system
- three tissues
- ex: parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma cells
- most common type of cell
- edible parts of a plant
- resin and tannins
- photosynthesis & storage of carbohydrates & secretion of substances
parenchyma cells may differentiate into ____________ cells.
- flexible tissue that provides support to nonwoody plants (allowing plants to grow upward)
- not found throughout the plant stems
- second simple tissue specialized for structural support
vascular tissue system
- two tissues
- ex: xylem, phloem
- for the conduction of water and minerals from the roots to the stems
parenchyma - storage, xylem fibers - support, tracheids - gynosperms, vessel element - angiosperms
four types of cells with xylem
- conducts food materials in the form of carbohydrates throughout the plant.
phloem cells can function without a ________.
companion cells or plasmodesmata
- loading food materials into the sieve tube element.
dermal tissue system
- two tissues
- ex: epidermis, periderm
present in woody plants
consist of a single layer of cells
prevent water loss
waterproof substance that heavily coats cell walls
- where plants grow
- composed of cells whose primary function is the formation of new cells
increase in cell number
cells elongate as the cytoplasm grows and the vacuole fills with water causing expansion
specialize into various cell types
periderm is made of ________.
primary growth, secondary growth
two kinds of meristematic growth
increase in length of plants
(primary growth) area of cell division
- protects cells that cover the root tip
- covers meristem
zone of elongation
(primary growth) where cells no longer divide but instead are growing larger which pushes the root tip deeper into the soil
(primary growth) - epidermis
(primary growth) - xylem and phloem
(primary growth) - ground tissue
increase in the girth of plants
(secondary growth) cell division occurs
between wood and inner bark
found on the outer bark regions where meristematic cells divide
roots are underground structure which branches out into the soil from the plant's ___________.
consists of one main root with smaller lateral roots (eudicots and gynosperms)
has several to many roots of the same size (monocots)
the stem where fibrous roots are from
anchorage, absorption, conduction, storage
4 functions of roots
produced by root caps to reduce friction
unicellular extensions of epidermal cells
causes the high absorptive capacity of roots
makes up the bulk of the root; main function is storage
(inner layer of cortex) controls what enters the xylem
special bandlike region that contains suberin
has a single layer if pericycle & contains meristematic cells that gives rise to roots
dissolved mineral ions and water enter the epidermis and travel through the cortex via the plasmodesmata
travel through cortex via porous cell walls
central tissue in most roots
wood and bark
result of the activity if two lateral meristems: the vascular cambrium and the cork cambrium have ________
aerial adventitious roots
arise from stem nodes
develop from branches of a vertical stem and grow downward to help upright position
aids in extensive distribution of shallow roots
ina swammpy environment, roots grow upwards to assist in getting O2
can absorb moisture from the environment
underground stems for asexual reproduction
may reproduce asexually by producing suckers that are above ground
when roots from different plants fuse together and grow from secondary growth
mutually beneficial relationship between roots and soil fungi.
surrounds the roots
penetrates the roots
nitrogen fixing bacteria that form mutualistic associations with roots
Are the structures that links a plants roots to its leaves and are usually aerial and they exhibit various forms
dormant/ not opened and covered by a protective layer of bud scales which are modified leaves.
between leaves and stems or axils.
area on the stem where leaves are attached.
Region of the stem between two successive nodes
bud scale scars
determines the age of a plant. Buds fall of leaves this scars.
shows where a leaf one once attached on the stem. (within are bundle scars remnants of the vascular tissues)
- sites of loosely arranged cells that allows gas exchange to occur.
are scattered throughout the monocot stems
surrounds vascular bundle that provides support.
the younger lighter colored wood closest to the bark where secondary phloem is located
older wood in the center typically brownish red.
lack fibers on cell walls and vessel elements on xylem making their woods soft. (Gymnosperms)
also known as growth increments
weak stemmed plants
produce special roots with adhesive pads that stick to the bark of host tree.
modified leaves or stems which wraps around for support
are vines that ascends spirally into their hosts.
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