40 terms

3rd nine weeks cultural literacy

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Terms in this set (...)

Alma Mater
Latin meaning "nurturing mother". school from which are graduated. Also can be a school's official song.
Mandate
a command or expression of desire, especially by a group of voters. Politicians elected in a landslide often claim they have received a mandate from the voters
E Pluribus unum
motto of the united States. Latin for "one out of many". Refers to the union formed by separate states
Acronym
a word formed by combining the beginning letters of a name or phrase (NASA) or by combining the initial syllables of a series of words (RADAR=radio detecting and ranging)
Solstice
the two times each year when the position of the sun at a given time of day does not seem to change direction. In the Northern Hemisphere, June 21st (summer solstice is the longest day of the year. December 21st (winter solstice) is the shortest day of the year
FDIC
a federal agency that insures deposits in savings account in qualifying banks
Caveat Emptor
Latin for "let buyer beware". Means that a customer should be alert to the possibility of being cheated
Archimedes
ancient Greek mathematician and inventor. He shouted, "Eureka" when he got into his bathtub one day and discovered that the volume of an object could be measured by the amount of water it displaced
Flappers
a nickname given to young women in the 1920s who defied convention by their dress and by behavior such as drinking and smoking in public
Double Indemnity
feature of a life insurance policy that says the insurer will pay twice the value of the policy if the insured dies accidentally
Federal Reserve
The national system for regulating banks in the U.S. This board is appointed by the president. It establishes banking policies, interest rates, and availability of credit.
Bear Market
Market (usually stock) having falling prices
Bull Market
market (usually stock) having rising prices
Market Economy
also called free markets or free enterprise systems. An economy where the greater part of production, distribution and exchange is controlled by private corporations rather than the government
FICA
acronym for Federal Insurance Contributions Act. FICA taxes are deducted from most people's pay to support social security
Blue Laws
laws that prohibit certain businesses from operating on Sunday or from selling certain things on Sunday
Eminent Domain
the right of a government to take private property for a public purpose. This usually happens with just compensation of the owner. Example: land for roads
Expropriation
taking over the private property by the government often without fair compensation but usually with a legal assertion that the government has a right to do so. Example: drug assets-forfeit home and cars
Habeaus Corpus
Latin for "you shall have the body". A legal term meaning that an accused person must be presented physically before the court with a statement demonstrating sufficient cause for arrest. No person can be imprisoned indefinitely without being brought to court to receive charges.
Double Jeopardy
trying a person twice in the same jurisdiction for the same crime. This is prohibited by the 5th amendment to the Constitution and due process
Cobalt 60
a radioactive isotope produced when neutrons bombard atoms of the element cobalt. Used in radiation therapy for cancer patients.
E=mc2
equation by Albert Einstein.
-E=energy
-m=units of mass
-c=the speed of light squared
-Because the speed of light is a very large number and is multiplied by itself, this equation shows how a small amount of matter can release a huge amount of energy (nuclear reaction)
Antoine Lavoisier
French scientist 18th century. Discovered oxygen. one of the fathers of modern chemistry. went to the guillotine during the Reign of Terror in 1793-1794 France.
Laser
device that produces a very narrow, high concentrated beam of light used in surgery, welding, sound and video recording. Acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
Meltdown
the most serious accident that can occur at a nuclear reactor. Radioactive material becomes very hot and melts some of the fuel. May or may not release radioactive material into the environment. Three Mile Island (1979)-partial meltdown; Chernobyl (1986)-complete meltdown
"half the truth is often a great lie."
Lie by omission. If you leave out part of the story, you prevent someone from getting the full truth.
"drink does not drown care, but waters it, and makes it grow faster."
Getting drunk to forget your problems only makes more problems.
"god helps them that help themselves."
you cannot sit back and wait for God to handle your problems. There are opportunities to take care of things with the talents he gave you.
"one today is worth two tomorrow."
Take care of things today. Do not procrastinate. The problems will only get bigger
"no gains without pains"
sometimes achievements are difficult.
John Paul II
elected in 1978 as the 1st polish pope and the first non Italian in centuries
COD
abbreviation for Cash on Delivery. will collect payment on receipt of goods
Carte Blanche
to receive the power to do as one wishes. French for "blank Card"
Waterloo
a battle in Belgium in 1815 in which the British defeated the French under Napoleon Bonaparte. Arthur Wellesley (later to be named Duke of Wellington) led the British. Waterloo has since become a general term used to describe a decisive and final defeat.
Prognosis
a medical prediction for the future course of a disease and the chance for recovery. A general term for prediction the unfolding of events.
Jacobians
extremely radical party of the French Revolution. Led by Rob Spierre. A general term for a radical. They were named for the place where the founders first met, a convent of Jacobian friars.
i.e.
stands for "id est Latin". That is-an expression or paraphrase
-(40 hours a week; i.e. 8 hour days)
e.g.
for example; in Latin "exempli gratia"
-she likes sports; e.g. soccer.
The Big Dipper
a constellation in the northern sky. The two stars on the far end of the bowl of the dipper point toward the North star. The Big Dipper is part of a larger constellation, Ursa Major (The Great Bear)
Lameduck
public official or administrator serving out a term in office after being defeated for re-election or when not seeking re-election