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Chapter 8- Joints

STUDY
PLAY
Joint
the sites where two or more bones meet
Synarthrosis
immobile
Amphiarthrosis
slightly mobie
diarthrosis
freely movable
fibrous joints
bones joined by fibrous tissues; no joint cavity
sutures
seams between bones of the skull
syndesmosis joint
bones connected by a ligament
gomphosis joint
peg in socket
cartilaginous joints
bones joined by cartilage; no joint cavity
synchondrosis joint
bar/plate of hyaline cartilage unites bones
symphysis joint
articular surface of bone covered in hyaline cartilage which is fused to plate of fibrocartilage; provides strength and flexibility
synovial joints
those in which in the articulating bones are separated by a fluid- containing joint cavity
ligaments
band of fibrous CT that connects bone to bone
tendons
chords of dense fibrous CT that connect bone to muscle
bursae
flattened fibrous sacs; lined with synovial membrane; filled with fluid
tendon sheath
elongated bursae that wrap completely around a tendon subjected to friction
collateral and cruciate ligaments in the knee
2 and 2; anterior/posterior cruciate prevent anterior/posterior displacement; tibial/fibial collateral; most complicated joint in the body
Rotator cuff
encircles the shoulder joint and blends with the articular capsule
ligament teres
ligament at the head of the femur, flat intracapsular band; unclear function; contains artery that supplies the head of the femur
Flexion
decreases the angle of the joint; brings articulating bones together
dorsiflexion
lifting the foot so that its superior surface approaches the shin
extension
reverse of flexion; increases the angle between articulating bones
hyperextension
extension beyond upright position
plantar flexion
depressing the foot and pointing the toes
abduction
movement of a limb away from the midline
adduction
movement of a limb toward the midline
circumduction
movement of a limb so that it describes a cone in space
rotation
the turning of a bone around its own axis; medial or lateral
supination
palm or face up
pronation
palm or face down
inversion
foot turning medially
eversion
foot turning laterally
protraction
nonangular anterior movements in a transverse plane
retraction
nonangular posterior movements in a transverse plane
sprain
stretching or tearing of the ligaments reinforcing a joint
dislocation
bones forced out of alignment; sprain, inflammation, joint immobilization
subluxation
partial dislocation of a joint
bursitis
inflammation of the bursa due to a blow or friction
tendonitis
inflammation of tendon sheaths due to overuse
arthritis
inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the joints; widespread and crippling; bacterial, autoimmune, wear and tear