Permanent waves a half of 7.0 or neutral pH; because of their higher pH they process at room temperature do not require the added heat of a hairdryer process more quickly, and produce firmer curls than true acid waves.
Also known as cold waves; they have a pH with a 9.0 and 9.6, use ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) as a reducing agent and process at room temperature without the addition of heat.
Compounds made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur.
Perms that use an ingredient that does not evaporate as readily as ammonia, so there is very little order associated with their use.
Ammonium thioglycolate (ATG)
Active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents.
Position of the term relation to its base section determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.
Also known as protective base cream; oily cream used to protect the skin and scalp during hair relaxing.
Angle at which the rods is position on the head (horizontally vertically or diagonally); also, the direction pattern in which hair is wrapped.
Refers to the position of the rod in relation to between a section base section; base placement is determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.
Relaxers that require the application of protective have cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer.
Subsections of panels into which hair is divided for perm wrapping; one rod is normally placed on each base section.
Basic permanent wrap
Also known as straight set wrap; perm wrapping pattern in which all the rods within a panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal sized baces all the base sections are horizontal and are the same length and width as a perm rod.
Perm wrap in which one end paper is folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope.
Bricklay permanent wrap
Perm wrap similar to actual technique of bricklaying; base sections are offset from each other row by row to prevent noticeable spilts and to blend the flow of the hair.
Chemical hair relaxing
A process or service that rearranged the structure of curly hair into a straighter or smoother form.
Chemical texture services
Hair services that cause a chemical change that alters the natural wave pattern of the hair.
Parma rods that have a smaller diameter in the center that increase to s larger diameter on the ends.
Croquignole perm wrap
Perm in which the hair strands are wrapped from the ends to the scalp in overlapping concentric layers.
Curvature permanent wrap
Perm wrap in which partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head.
Strong chemicak side bond's formed when the sulfur atoms in two adjacent protein chains are joined together.
Double flat wrap
Perm wrap in which on end papers is placed under and another is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped.
Also known as piggyback wrap; a etao technique whereby extra-long hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midqlway down the hair shaft, and another rod is used to wrap the remaining hair strand in the same direction.
Also known as end wraps; absorbent papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping and winding hair on perm rods.
Perm activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hood-type hair dryer.
Create an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the waving solution and speeds up processing.
Glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG)
Main active ingredient in true acid-balanced waving lotions.
Half off-base placement
Base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees or perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned half off its base section.
Weak physical side bonds that are also the result of an attraction between opposite electrical charges; they are easily broken by water (wet setting) or heat (thermal styling), and they re-form as the hair dries or cools.
An acid-alkali neutralization reaction that neutralizes (deactivaters) the alkaline residues left in the hair by a hydroxide relaxer and lowers the pH of the hair and scalp; hydroxide relaxer neutralization does not involve oxidation or rebuild disulfide bonds.
Very strong alkaline with a pH over 13; the hydroxide ion is the active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers.
Long, coiled polypeptide chains.
Process by which hydroxide relaxers permanently straighten hair they remove a sulfur Atom from a disulfide bond and convert it into a Lanthionine bond.
Also known as circle rod; tool that is usually about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod.
Perms that use sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfites as an alternative to ammonium thioglycolate.
Metal hydroxide relaxers
Iconic compounds formed by a metal (sodium, potassium, or lithium) which is combined with oxygen and hydrogen.
Relaxers that do not require application of protective base cream.
Conditioners with an acidic pH that restores the hair's natural pH before the final neutralizing shampoo.
Base control in which the hair is wrapped at 45 degree below the center of the base section so the road is position completely off its base.
Base control in which the hair is wrapped at a 45-degree angle below perpendicular to its base section and the rod is position on its base.
Also known as end bonds chemical bonds that join amino acids together end-to-end in long chains to form polypeptide chains.
A two-step process whereby the hair undergoes a physical change caused by wrapping the hair on perm rods; the hair then undergoes a chemical change caused by the application of permanent waving solution and neutralizer.
Long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.
Disulfide, salt, and hydrogen bonds that Cross-link polypeptide chains together
Single flap wrap
Perm wrap that is similar to Double flat wrap but uses only one and paper plates over the top of the strand of hair being wrapped.
Soft Bender rods
Tool about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length.
Soft curl permanent
A thio base chemical service that reformats Curly and wavy hair into looser and larger curls and waves.
Spiral perm wrap
Hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the run which causes the hair to spiral along the length of the rod, similar to the stripes on a candy cane.
Perm rods that are equal and diameter along their entire length or curling area.
The most common reducing agent in permanent wave solution.
Stops the action of a permanent wave solution and rebuild the hair in its new curly form.
Use the same ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) that is used in permanent waving but at a higher concentration and a higher pH (above 10).
Perm that uses an ingredient other than atg as the primary reducing agent such as cysteamine or mecaptamine.
True acid waves
Have a pH between 4.5 and 7.0 and require heat to process; they process more slowly than alkaline waves, and they do not usually produce at firm a curl as alkaline waves.
The measurement of the thickness or thinness of a liquid that affects how the fluid flows.
Wrapping technique that uses zigzag partings to divide base areas.