Anatomy Integumentary & Muscular Systems

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Integumentary System
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Terms in this set (64)
dermismiddle layer of skin; divided into two layers 1. papillary layer 2. reticular layerpapillary layerthin, upper portion of the dermis - Meissner's corpuscle (tactile receptor)-senses light touch - papillary plexus (network of blood vessels in papillary layer)reticular layerthick; bottom portion of dermis - Pacinian corpuscle (lamellated receptor) - senses deep pressure, fast vibrations - sweat glands - eccrine & apocrineeccrine sweat glandfound all over body, responds to heat, secretes sweatapocrine sweat glandfound in armpits, nipples, and external genitalia, responds to stress, secretes thick oily substancehypodermis (subcutaneous)inner layer of skin; mostly functions in fat storage -subcutaneous plexus - network of blood vessels in hypodermisskeletal musclestriated, voluntary, attached to bones by 1 or 2 large tendons or many small tendons, work in opposition and are arranged in antagonistic muscle groupsEach muscle has an origin, insertion, and an actionorigin- what muscle attaches to for leverage; usually larger and more stationary bone than the insertion Insertion- what muscle attaches to for movement, usually smaller bone than the origin and not stationary; what the muscle acts upon and causes to move action- the type of movement that occursExample of OIA: Triceps brachiiorigin= scapula & humerus, insertion= ulna, action= extends elbowExample of OIA: Biceps brachiiorigin= scapula, insertion= radius, action= flexes forearmrectus (muscular system)fibers run parallel to the midline of the body or longitudinal axis of a bone (Ex. rectus abdominis)transverse (muscular system)fibers run perpendicular to the midline or longitudinal axis of a bone (Ex. transverse abdominis)oblique (muscular system)fibers run diagonally to the midline of the body or longitudinal axis of a bone (Ex.internal/external obliques)maximuslarge (gluteus maximus)minimussmall (gluteus minimus)longuslong (palmaris longus)brevisshort (exterior carpi radialis brevis)# of origins for biceps2 origins# of origins for triceps3 origins# of origins for quadriceps4 originsrelative to location of origin and insertion exampleSternohyoid origin: sterno = manubrium of the sternum insertion: hyoid = hyoid bonerelative to location of muscle exampleBrachioradialis Brachio = arm radialis = radius this muscle runs along the radius of the forearmrelative to shape of the muscledeltoid = triangular orbicularis oris = circularmovements that occur in the saggital planeflexion & extension = bend/straigthen (elbow, knee) plantarflexion & dorsiflexion = point/flex (ankle)movements that occur in the frontal planeabduction/adduction = movement away/towards the midline (arms,legs) eversion/inversion = movement of the sole of the foot away/towards the midline elevation/depression = superior/inferior movement (open/close mouth, shrugging shoulders)movements that occur in the transverse planepronation/supination = movement around an axis (shaking head yes or no) protraction/retraction = anterior/posterior movement (jaw/shoulders)miscellaneous motionsrotation = movement around an axis (shaking head yes or no) tensor = makes more rigid (tensor fasciae latae) sphincter = closes hole (pyloric sphincter)abdominal wall muscles- external obliques - internal obliques - transverse abdominis - rectus abdominis (6-pack)rotater cuff muscles (SITS)ALL rotater cuff muscles --> origin=scapula, insertion=humerus - supraspinatus - infraspinatus - teres minor - subscapularisquadriceps femoris (quads)ALL quad muscles --> insertion= tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament action = knee extension - vastus lateralis - vastus medialis - vastus intermedius - rectus femorishamstringsALL hamstring muscles --> origin=ischium (the ischial tuberosities you "sit on") action=knee flexion - biceps femoris - semimembranosus - semitendinosousFrontalis (eye)origin = cranial aponeurosis insertion = eyebrows action = raises eyebrowsOrbicularis oculi (eye)origin = medial orbit insertion = eyelids action = closes eyedorsal/superior + ventral/inferior rectus (eye)origin = posteromedial orbit insertion = dorsal + ventral eyeball action = moves eye dorsally or ventrallylateral + medial rectus (eye)origin = posteromedial orbit insertion = lateral + medial eyeball action = moves eye laterally or mediallydorsal/superior + ventral/inferior oblique (eye)origin = posteromedial + anteromedial orbit insertion = dorsal + ventral eyeball action = rotates eye up to the side/ down to the sidelevator labii (mouth)origin = inferior margin of orbit insertion = orbicularis oris action = raises upper lipdepressor labii (mouth)origin = mandible insertion = lower lip action = depresses lower lipzygomatic major (mouth)origin = zygomatic insertion = angle of mouth action = retracts (elevates) corner of mouth (smile)orbicularis oris (mouth)origin = maxilla and mandible insertion = lips action = purses lips (kiss)temporalis (jaw)origin = frontal and temporal insertion = mandible action = elevates mandible (closes mouth)masseter (jaw)origin = zygomatic arch insertion = mandible action = elevates mandible (closes mouth)pterygoids (jaw)origin = pterygoid process (sphenoid) insertion = mandible action = moves mandible side to side (chew)digastric (jaw)origin = mandible insertion = hyoid action = depresses mandible, elevates larynxsternocleidomastoid (neck)origin = clavicle & manubrium insertion = mastoid process (temporal) action = flexes head and necksplenius (neck)origin = spinous processes (vertebrae) insertion = mastoid process (temporal) action = extends head and neckexternal intercostals (chest)origin = inferior border of rib insertion = superior border of rib action = elevates ribsinternal intercostals (chest)origin = superior border of rib insertion = inferior border of rib action = depresses ribsdiaphragm (chest)origin = inferior rib cage + lumbar vertebrae insertion = central tendon action = expands thoracic cavityrectus abdominis (abdomen)origin = pubis insertion = sternum action = flexes trunkexternal oblique (abdomen)origin = ribs insertion = linea alba action = rotates torsointernal oblique (abdomen)origin = vertebrae insertion = linea alba action = rotate torso, exhalationtransverses abdominis (abdomen)origin = ribs + vertebrae insertion = linea alba action = compresses abdomenerector spinae (back)origin = spinous process vertebrae insertion = spinous process vertebrae action = extends trunk