Ap world history final

persian wars
Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus. (131)
alexander the great
successor of Philip of Macedon; 1st global empire, but no lasting bureaucracy; spread of Hellenism is greatest achievement
hellenistic age
Greek culture spread across western Asia and northeastern Africa after the conquests of Alexander the Great. The period ended with the fall of the last major Hellenistic kingdom to Rome, but Greek cultural influence persisted until spread of islam. (137)
roman republic
The period from 507 to 31 B.C.E., during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate. (p. 148)
adopted son of Caesar became the first EMPEROR of rome
byzantine empire
rose out of the split of East and Western Roman Empire; lasted another 1000 years; kept Hellenism alive; fell in 1453 by the Ottomans
shi huangdi
Founder of the short-lived Qin dynasty and creator of the Chinese Empire (r. 221-210 B.C.E.). He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states and standardization. (163)
(Hinduism) the name for the original social division of Vedic people into four groups (which are subdivided into thousands of jatis)
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
An Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama, who renounced his wealth and social position. After becoming 'enlightened' (the meaning of Buddha) he enunciated the principles of Buddhism. (180)
Mauryan Dynasty; after witnessing the results of a gruesome battle he pushes Buddhism on the people; establishes Rock Edicts with Buddhist sayings
gupta empire
Powerful Indian state based, like its Mauryan predecessor, on a capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture (186)
silk roads
a system of ancient caravan routes across Central Asia, along which traders carried silk and other trade goods.
a family of languages widely spoken in the southern half of the African continent
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion. (p. 230)
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
abbasid caliphate
descendants of the prophet muhammad's uncle, al-Abbas, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad from 750-1258
the king who was crowned emperor of the holy roman empire in 800 A.D.
1096 Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid they Byzantines; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade
Living in a religious community apart from secular society and adhering to a rule stipulating chastity, obedience, and poverty. (Primary Centres of Learning in Medieval Europe) (261)
tang empire
Empire unifying China and part of Central Asia, founded 618 and ended 907. The Tang emporers presided over a magnificent court at their capital, Chang'an.
song empire
Empire in southern China (1127-1279; the 'Southern Song') while the Jin people controlled the north. Distinguished for its advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics. (p. 285)
a Buddhist doctrine that enlightenment can be attained through direct intuitive insight
A very large flatbottom sailing ship produced in the Tang and Song Empires, specially designed for long-distance commercial travel. (p. 288)
a member of an American Indian people of Yucatan and Belize and Guatemala who had a culture (which reached its peak between AD 300 and 900) characterized by outstanding architecture and pottery and astronomy
native american people that settled in teh Valley of Mexico in the 1200s a.d. and later developed a powerful empire
Native American people that around a.d. 1400 created an empire reaching nearly 2500 miles along the west coast of South America
genghis khan
Mongolian Emperor whose empire stretched from the Black Sea to the Pacific Ocean (1162-1227)
A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia. >(p. 325)
ming empire
Empire based in China that Zhu Yuanzhang established after the overthrow of the Yuan Empire. The Ming emperor Yongle sponsored the building of the Forbidden City and the voyages of Zheng He. (355)
zheng he
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa. (pp. 355, 422)
Mongolian ruler of Samarkand who led his nomadic hordes to conquer an area from Turkey to Mongolia (1336-1405)
swahili coast
East African shores of the Indian Ocean between the Horn of Africa and the Zambezi River; from the Arabic sawahil, meaning 'shores.' (p. 383)
Port city in the modern Southeast Asian country of Malaysia, founded about 1400 as a trading center on the Strait of Malacca. Also spelled Melaka. (p. 387)
latin west
Historian's name for the territories of Europe that adhered to the Latin rite of Christianity and used the Latin language for intellectual exchange in the period 1000-1500.
100 years war
the series of wars fought over the lands in French control this lasted from 1337 to 1453
henry the navigator
(1394-1460) Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa. (p. 425)
ships that used triangular sails to sail against the wind, and had rudders to improve steering, ships that used triangular sails to sail against the wind, and had rudders to improve steering
hernan cortes
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
columbian exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages. (p. 472)
a person with both Spanish or Portuguese and Native American ancestry
iroquois confederacy
An alliance of five northeastern Amerindian peoples (after 1722 six) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, it dominated W. New England. (488)
chartered companies
Groups of private investors who paid an annual fee to France and England in exchange for a monopoly of trade in the West Indies colonies.
the formal act of freeing from slavery
In the West Indian colonies, the rich men who owned most of the slaves and most of the land, especially in the eighteenth century. (p. 502)
middle passage
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
ottoman empire
a Turkish sultanate of southwestern Asia and northeastern Africa and southeastern Europe
mughal empire
A period of Muslim rule of India from the 1500's to the 1700's.
greatest Mughal leader of India
hidden imam
Last in a series of twelve descendants of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali, whom Shi'ites consider divinely appointed leaders of the Muslim community. In occlusion since ca. 873, he is expected to return as a messiah at the end of time. (p. 532)
tokugawa shogunate
The last of the three shogunates of Japan. (p. 563)
qing empire
Empire established in China by Manchus who overthrew the Ming Empire in 1644. At various times the Qing also controlled Manchuria, Mongolia, Turkestan, and Tibet. The last Qing emperor was overthrown in 1911. (p. 556)
peter the great
czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
a local lord in Japan in the era of samurai
constitutional convention
the convention of United States statesmen who drafted the United States Constitution in 1787
revolutions of 1848
Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed. (p. 595)
simon bolivar
Venezuelan statesman who led the revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule
people who believed that slavery should be against the law
a famous chief of the Shawnee who tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement (1768-1813)
crimean war
a war in Crimea between Russia and a group of nations including England and France and Turkey and Sardinia
young ottomans
Movement of young intellectuals to institute liberal reforms and build a feeling of national identity in the Ottoman Empire in the second half of the nineteenth century.
opium war
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China. (p. 684)
taiping rebellion
The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire. (p. 687)
a Bantu language of considerable literary importance in southeastern Africa
clipper ships
narrow hulls clipped swiftly through the water, broke speed record
making modern in appearance or behavior
victorian age
a period in British history during the reign of Queen Victoria in the 19th century
an economic system based on state ownership of capital
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
meiji restoration
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism. (See also Yamagata Aritomo.) (p. 694)
vladimir lenin
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
treaty of versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
Nationalist political party founded on democratic principles by Sun Yat-sen in 1912. After 1925, the party was headed by Chiang Kai-shek, who turned it into an increasingly authoritarian movement. (p. 769)
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
mao zedong
Third leader after the emporer; started the Great Leap Forward, the Great Cultural Revolution, the Red Book, the Red Guard, and the Red Brigade, wanted to get rid of the 4 olds. Communist.
haile selassie
of Ethiopia called on the League of Nations to help.
emiliano zapata
Mexican revolutionary who led a revolt for agrarian reforms (1879-1919)
import substitution
a government policy that uses trade restrictions and subsidies to encourage domestic production of manufactured goods
world bank
a United Nations agency created to assist developing nations by loans guaranteed by member governments
an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
Members of a leftist coalition that overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979 and attempted to install a socialist economy. The United States financed armed opposition by the Contras. The Sandinistas lost national elections in 1990
ayatollah khomeini
Iranian religious leader of the Shiites
asian tigers
Collective name for South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore-nations that became economic powers in the 1970s and 1980s. (p. 861)
Japanese term that describes a group of companies that sell the goods
deng xiaoping
Fourth leader after the emporer; created the 4 modernizations, was leader when Gorbachev of the U.S.S.R came, was leader during Tiananmen Square, created the 4 Special Zones. Communist.
a weapon that kills or injures civilian as well as military personnel (nuclear and chemical and biological weapons)