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Lewis and Hockenberry as references, along with Kim Aquila's lectures


Abnormal, short, deep, hoarse sounds in exhalation that often accompany severe chest pain. The grunt occurs because the glottis briefly stops the flow of air, halting the movement of the lungs and their surrounding or supporting structures.


When a patient sits or stands leaning forward and supporting the upper body with hands on the knees or on another surface (indicates respiratory distress).

Head Bobbing

It is an attempt to increase the ventilation by using the accessory muscles of respiration.


An abnormal condition in which a person must sit or stand to breathe deeply or comfortably.


A high pitched sound (crowing like) generated from partially obstructed air flow in the upper airway.


A machine that is used to give the patient breaths through the ET or Tracheostomy tube


Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) maintains a constant amount of positive pressure in the alveoli at the end of each expiration forcing the alveoli to stay open.


chronic retention of carbon dioxide, leading to symptoms of mental cloudiness and lethargy

Status Asthmatics

A severe unremitting asthmatic attack that fails to reverse with conventional therapy.

Air Trapping

incomplete emptying of alveoli during expiration due to loss of lung tissue elasticity (emphysema), bronchospasm (asthma), or airway obstruction


The clinical presentation of apnea of infancy, including some combination of changes in color, muscle tone, and choking or gagging.


A needle puncture into the pleural space in the chest cavity to remove pleural fluid for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons

Peak Expiratory Flow Rate

Measured with peak flow meter

V/Q Scan

Ventilation-Perfusion scan of the lungs (Q stands for rate of blood flow or blood volume) Radioactive gas in inhaled.


A drop in oxygen saturation, increased cyanosis, or altered LOC (Indicates this)

4 Clinical Signs for Respiratory Assessment

1. LOC
2. Respiratory rate
3. Respiratory effort and mechanics
4. Skin and mucous membrane color


Pronged expiration indicates obstruction of the intrathoracic airway; e.g., small bronchi and bronchioles in asthma and bronchitis.

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