exam #2 SIMW
Terms in this set (57)
the cells life support
receives messages from other cells
passes messages away from cell body to other neurons
covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses
terminal branches of axon
form junctions with other cells
A short electrical charge
Travels down an axon
movement of positively charged atoms
Movement of an action potential down an axon through a chain reaction
The cell has a negative charge.
More negatively charged particles exist inside the cell than outside the cell.
The resting potential is the constant electrical charge that exists across the membrane of an inactive neuron
a decrease in the differential charge across the neuronal membrane.
Positive ions moves inward
Membrane's electrical charge becomes momentarily positive
Positive ions enter the neuron, making it more prone to firing an action potential
positively charged ions move outside the cell
reestablish negative resting potential.
when the cell is so negative that it less prone to firing an action potential.
Stimulation required to trigger an action potential
Action Potential Properties
Sufficient signals Action potential
Insufficient signal No action potential
Remains the same.
a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
(chemicals) released from the sending neuron and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron.
influence receiving neuron's action potential.
is the membrane of the sending neuron
is the membrane of the receiving neuron
Neurotransmitters are reabsorbed into the sending neurons
Applies the brakes on neurotransmitter action.
Integration of inputs
The neuron integrates the total number of signals and sends a message (in its rate of action potentials) that reflect that integration of excitatory and inhibitory signals
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
mimics neurotransmitter (makeshift key that works)
Blocks neurotransmitter (key that may fit but doesn't turn knob)
Central Nervous System (CNS):
brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS):
neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the body.
Kinds of Neurons
Sensory Neurons- PNS
Motor Neurons- PNS
Peripheral Nervous System consists of
Somatic Nervous System: Controls the body's skeletal muscles.
Autonomic Nervous System: Controls the glands and other muscles.
The nervous system breaks into 2 parts which are
Peripheral; Central (Brain and Spinal cord
Peripheral breaks down to two controls which are;
(controls self-regulated action of internal organs and glads
Somatic (controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles)
Autonomic breaks into 2 parts
Sympathetic (fight or flight arousing)
Parasympathetic (Digest and rest)
The Endocrine System
The body's "slow" communication system.
Communication is carried out by hormones synthesized by a set of glands.
Parts of the Brain Stem
The medulla; the reticular formation; Thalamus
is the base of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing.
Inside brainstem plays an important role in controlling arousal and some reflexes.
Top of the brain stem receives sensory information (not smell) and send it to the sensory areas in the cortex.
Processes sensory input.
Helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance.
Bottom lower part of brain
-border of brainstem and cerebral hemispheres.
The hypothalamus; The amygdala; The hippocampus
Important for learning and memory
Large tube looking thing connecting to the Amygdala
linked to the emotions of fear and anger.
Round bean guy next to hippocampus
Directs maintenance activities (eating, drinking, and temperature).
Helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland
Below the thalamus
The Cerebral Cortex
Cover the cerebral hemispheres.
Control and information processing center.
Made up of 4 parts
Involved in speaking and making plans and judgments
-higher order thinking
Receives sensory information for touch and body position
impairment of language, typically from damage to left hemisphere language areas.
muscle movements in speech
-Frontal lobe, usually left side
-Temporal lobe, usually left side
3 research methods for brain research
After damage or disease.
Computerized Axial Tomography (CT or CAT scan)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Involves the injection of a dye into the blood and a passage of x-rays through the head
Scanner is rotated slowly until a measurement has been taken at each angle and a computer constructs the image
Help detect tumors and abnormalities
Computers generate images of soft tissue using a magnetic field
Ventricular enlargement in a schizophrenic patient.
- Not risky (as long as you don't have certain metals in you)
Electroencephalograph (EEG) - records electrical activity produced by various brain regions.
Can't get at all brain regions
records emission of radioactivity from injected radioactive chemicals (e.g., glucose) to produce a high- resolution image.
provides a moving and detailed picture.
Based on oxygen consumption (detects changes in hemoglobin)
Experimental Ablation/Lesion Surgery
The removal or destruction of a brain area to determine function.
experience everything except
inactivation of brain areas through gene mutations critical to their development or functioning.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation
application of intense magnetic fields to temporarily inactivate neurons.