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Bio Test Study Guide
Terms in this set (65)
How did Aristotle classify organisms? WAs this a good system?
By either plants/animals. No- it was not adequate.
Who developed the naming system that is still used today?
science of naming and classify organisms
group of organisms in a classification system
two part scientific naming system that uses latin words and the scientific names are always written in italics. (A SYSTEM OF NAMING ORGANISMS THAT USES THE GENUS NAME/SPECIES IDENTIFIER)
What are the two parts of a scientific name?
genus and species identifier
one or more physically similar species. species in same genus are thought to be closely related and genus name is always capitalized.
second part of scientific name, that is lowercase, and always follows genus name
How do scientific names help scientists?
help them communicate because some species have very similar common names.
How many levels does Linnaeus classification system have?
What happens as levels go from kingdom to species?
They Get More Specific
What are the seven levels of classification?
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
What doesn't Linnaeus system account for?
What is Linnaeus system based on?
physical similarities and it is not always the result of close relations. genetic similarities more accurately shows evolutionary relationships.
way or organizing organisms in context of evolution
branching diagram or tree showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among organism OR tree that shows relationships among organisms
Phylogenetic Trees/Evolutionary Tree
What type of evidence is systematics based on?
Fossil evidence, Morphology, Embryological Patterns of Development and Macromolecules/Chromosomes
What is fossil evidence?
evidence from the past and it provides framework for the phylogenetic tree?
how organisms are structured/ appearance and closer morphologies show descent from common ancestor
differences among animal phyla may appear very early in embryological development
What is Embryological Patterns of Development?
What are Chromosomes/Macromolecules?
DNA, RNA, Proteins
classification based on common ancestry
diversity of living things in the context of evolution
What does systematics organize?
evolutionary history for a group of species(evidence from living species, fossil record, molecular data and shown with branching diagrams)
______ is a common method to make evolutionary trees
common ancestry and species are placed in order so that they descended from a common ancestor
What is classification based on?
evolutionary tree made using cladistics and it shows shared traits of organisms. (it can show differences in anatomy, physiology, or behavior among organisms)
group of species that shares a common ancestor( each species in a clade shares some traits with the ancestor and each species in a clade has traits that have changed)
traits shared in different degrees by clade members OR a feature that evolved only within the group under consideration
What are derived characters?
What is the basis of arranging species in a cladogram?
What do more closely related species share?
more derived chracters
represent the most common ancestor of a clade
What are nodes?
Do all organisms fit in Linnaeus 2 kingdoms?(2 KINGDOMS=PLANTS/ANIMALS)
No(ex. Bacteria/Fungi don't fit)
What kingdom was split into two distinct kingdoms known as Eubacteria and Archaebacteria?
What are the six kingdoms used today?
Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Plantae, Fungi and Animalia
What is the three domain system?
Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
What domain is Eubacteria in?
What domain is Archaebacteria in?
What domain is Protista in?
What domain is Animalia in?
What domain is Fungi in?
What domain is Animalia in?
cells without a nucleus
cells with a nucleus and organelles surrounded by membranes
organisms that can make its own food
organisms that consume other organisms to get energy
made of many cells
polysaccharide made by joining glucose molecules together, which makes plants sturdy and it is a type of sugar
prokaryotes, unicellular, cell walls with peptidoglycan, can be autotrophs/heterotrophs
DOMAIN: BACTERIA, KINGDOM: EUBACTERIA
polymer made of sugars and amino acids found outside the cell membrane in the cell wall of some bacteria
prokaryotes, unicellular, cell walls without peptidoglycan, autotrophs/heterotrophs, live in extreme environments such as volcanic hot springs, brine pools and oxygen. (EXAMPLES ARE HALOPHILES, THERMOPHILES AND METHANOGENS)
DOMAIN: ARCHAEA, KINGDOM: ARCHAEBACTERIA
organisms that live in high temperature environments
organisms that live in high salt environments
eukaryote, multicellular, have cell walls with cellulose and chloroplasts in cells, and autotrophs
DOMAIN: EUKARYA, KINGDOM: PLANTAE
eukaryote, multicellular, no cell walls/cellulose and heterotrophs
DOMAIN: EUKARYA, KINGDOM: ANIMALIA
eukaryotes, mostly multicellular, few unicellular, have cell walls with chitin, heterotrophs, they absorb nutrients from decaying organic matter
DOMAIN: EUKARYA, KINGDOM: FUNGI
eukaryotes, mostly multicellular/some unicellular some have cell walls with cellulose/chloroplasts and they can be autotrophs/heterotrophs
DOMAIN: EUKARYA, KINGDOM: PROTISTA
How did Aristotle classify organisms?
where they lived
How did Linnaeus classify organisms?
What is the first and second part of a scientific name?
genus, species identifier
type of classification key and it is a tool for identifying unfamiliar organisms. It has a list of traits that will lead you to the identity of the organism. There is two choices and then directions of what to do next.(the common name/scientific name it shows)
What is a dichotomous key?
How does Dichotomous key help scientists?
helps them find the name of the unknown organism?
What does Dichotomous key have a list of?
specific characteristics/traits that scientists can use to compare to unknown organism
Each step gives scientists two choices and directions of what to do next
What does each step in a dichotomous key allow scientists to do?
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