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abnormal psych chapters 1-3
Terms in this set (96)
different, extreme unusual, even bizarre.
unpleasant and upsetting to the person.
interfering with the person's ability to conduct daily activities in a constructive way.it upsets, distracts, or confuses people that they cannot care for themselves properly, participate in ordinary socail interactions, etc.
to oneself or others. individuals who behave in a careless, hostile or confused way may be placing themselves or those around them at risk.
norms (under category of deviance)
a society's stated and unstated rules for proper conduct. behavior to break this is to be considered criminal and behavior, thoughts and emotions that break norms of psychological functioning are called abnormal
culture (under category of deviance)
a people's common history, values, institutions, habits, skills, technology, and arts. a society's norms grow from its particular culture.
elusive nature of abnormality
a society may have trouble separating an abnormality that requires intervention from an eccentricity, an unusual pattern with which others have no right to interfere.
clinical theorist; places emphasis on society's role that he finds the whole concept of mental illness to be invalid, a myth of sorts. the deviations that society calls abnormal are simply problems in living.
clinical theorist that believed all forms of therapy have three essential parts. sufferer, healer, and a series of contacts.
a stone instrument or trephine, was used to cut away a circular section of the skull. this operation was done to treat severe abnormal behavior. it was to release evil spirits that were causing the problem.
(460-377 bc) the father of modern medicine; taught that illnesses had natural causes. he saw abnormal behavior as a disease arising from internal physical problems. he believed that some form of brain pathology was the culprit and that it resulted from an imbalance of four fluids, or humors that flowed through the body. he believed that the excess of bile could be reduced by a quiet life, a diet of vegetables, temperance, exercise, celibacy, and even bleeding.
(1515-1588) German physician; the first physician to specialize in mental illness, believed that the mind was as susceptible to sickness as the body was. the founder of the modern study of psychopathology.
1800 an asylum in paris for male patients, as the first site of asylum reform.
(1745-1826) chief physician at la bicetre. he argued that the patients were sick people whose illnesses should be treated with sympathy and kindness rather than chains and beatings.
the methods of pinel and tuke; emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful techniques.
(1745-1813) physician; considered the father of american psychiatry. responsible for the early spread of moral treatment in the us.
(1802-1887) boston schoolteacher who made humane care a public and political concern in the us. spoke about horrors she had seen in asylums and calling for reform.
the view that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes (syphilis an irreversable disorder with both physical and mental symptoms.
the view that the chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological.
emil kraepelin ( somatogenic)
(1856-1926) german researcher; published a book arguing that the physical factors, are responsible for abnormal behavior
richard wft-ebing on kraf (somatogenic)
(1840-1902) german neurologist injected matter from syphilis sores into patients suffering from general paresis and found that none of the patients developed symptoms of syphilis.
(1734-1815) Austrian physician established a clinic in paris; used hypnotism and mesmerim with patients with hysterical disorders.
either the theory of the treatment of abnormal mental functioning that emphasizes unconscious psychological forces as the cause of psychopathology. (freud believed that the unconscious psychological processes are the root of such functioning.
severe disturbances cared for?
psychotropic medications: drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning. ex antidepressant drugs, anti anxiety drugs.
deinstitutionalization: releasing hundreds of thousands of patients from public mental hospitals.
less severe disturbances cared for?
private psychotherapy: an arrangement by which an individual directly pays a psychotherapist for counseling services.
the study and enhancement of positive feelings, traits, and abilities.
seeks to understand how culture, race, ethnicity, gender, and similar factors affect behavior and thought and how people of differences may differ psychologically.
managed care programs
To control escalating health care costs by curbing unnecessary emergency department visits and emphasizing preventive care, Medicaid reform has involved
chapt 2 start: clinical researches
• Clinical researchers try to discover universal laws, or principles of abnormal psychological functioning. They search for general or nomothetic understanding of nature, causes, and treatments of abnormality.
• Use scientific method: they collect and evaluate information through careful observations.
• Interested in variables and try to see if two variables change together or if one changes by itself.
• They use case studies, correlational method, and experimental method.
is a detailed account of a person's life and psychological problems. The person's history, present and symptoms.
• A case study may offer tentative support for a theory or serve to challenge a theory's assumptions.
• Show value of new therapeutic techniques, patients may benefit from discussing their problems and discover underlying problems.
• Offer opportunities to study unusual problems that don't occur often enough.
• Limitations: they are reported by bias observers which are therapists who have a personal stake in seeing their treatment succeed.
• Case studies rely on subjective evidence, is a problem really caused by that event that the therapist says it is.
• Internal validity, which case studies have a low rate of.
• External validity: case studies have a low rate of.
accuracy with which a study can pinpoint one of various possible factors as the cause.
the degree to which the results of a study may be generalized beyond that study.
a research procedure used to determine how much events or characteristics vary along with each other.
• Participants are the subject of the method and they are called a sample. A positive correlation is when two variables increase together and a negative is when one is increasing and one is decreasing. There can also be a correlation called unrelated meaning there is no constant relationship between the two variables.
high external validity and low internal validity.
epidemiological study (type of correlational study)
measures the incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a given population. incidence= the number of new cases that emerge during a given period. prevalence= is the total number of cases in the population during a given time period.
longitudinal studies (type of correlational)
also called high risk or developmental studies. study that observes the same participants on many occasions over a long period of time.
a variable is manipulated and the effect of the manipulation is observed. testing hypothesis and manipulated a variable and observe to see the effect on the other variable.
independent variable (exp)
manipulated to determine whether it has an effect on another variable.
dependent variable( exp)
expected to change as the independent variable is being manipulated.
a variable other than the independent variable that is also acting on the dependent variable.
control group (exp)
research participants who are no exposed to the independent variable but whose experience is similar to that of the experimental group which the participants are exposed to it.
random assignments (exp)
a selection procedure that ensures that participants are randomly placed either in the control group or in the experiment group. They need to watch the makeup of the groups since those differences may be confound.
experimental group (exp)
the participants who are exposed to the independent variable under investigation
statistical significance (exp
indicated whether a participant's improvement in functioning- large or small- occurred because of treatment.
clinical significance (exp)
indicated whether the amount of improvement is meaningful in the individual's life.
Blind design (exp)
an experiment in which participants don't know whether they are in the experimental group or the controlled due to the confound problem of bias.
quasi-experimental design (mixed design) (alternative experimental design)
investigators don't randomly assign participants to control and experimental groups but instead make use of groups that already exist in the world at large. (abusive parents)
natural experiment (alternative exp)
nature itself manipulates the independent variable, and the experimenter observers the effects. cannot be retested or repeated (earthquake)
analogue experiment (alternative exp)
the experimenter produces abnormal-like behavior in laboratory participants and then conducts experiments on the participants. often use animal participants, not real life.
single subject experiment (alternative exp)
a single participant is observed and measured both before and after the manipulation of the independent variable.
start of chapter 3 biological model explain
biological theorists view abnormal behavior as an illness brought about by malfunctioning parts of the organism. usually in brain anatomy or brain chemistry.
top of the brain; cluster of regions which include the cortex, corpus callosum, basal ganglia, hippocampus, and amgdala.
steps to sending information (bio)
first received by a neuron's dendrites, antenna-like extensions located at one end of the neuron. next it travels down the neuron's axon, a long fiber extending from the neuron's body. finally it is transmitted through the nerve ending at the end of the axon to the dendrites of the other neurons.
seperates one neuron from the next, and the message must somehow move across that space
when an electrical impulse reaches a neuron's ending, the nerve ending is stimlated to release a chemical called a neurtransmitter and it travels across the synaptic space
on the dendrites of the neighboring neurons.
biological treatments -psychotropic medications-
drugs that mainly effect emotions and thought processes. ex anti anxiety and anti depressant
biological treatments - ECT
used primarily on depressed patients; two electrodes are attached to a patients forehead and an electrical current of 65 to 140 volts is passed briefly through the brain.
biological treatment- psychosurgery or neurosurgery
brain surgery for mental disorders. dates back to late 1930s by neuropsychiatrist antonio de egas moniz. known as lobotomy; a surgeon would cut the connections between the brain's frontal lobes and the lower regions of the brain.
psychodynamic model theorists beliefs
oldest model; psychodynamic theorists believe that a person's behavior, whether normal or abnormal, is determined largely by underlying psychological forces of which he or she is not consciously aware of.
sigmund freud psychodynamic
(1856-1939) the psychodynamic model was first formulated by him. he developed the theory of psychoanalysis to explain both normal and abnormal psychological functioning. worked with car jung and alfred adler.
psychodynamic freud- three central forces
• Id: the needs, drives, and impulses, the pleasure principle.
• Ego: reality principle
• Superego: this is learned from our parents and is developed by a conscience.
psychodynamic- ego defense mechanisms
developed by the ego to control unacceptable id impulses and to avoid or reduce the anxiety they arouse
defense mechanism- repression
person avoids anxiety by simply not allowing painful or dangerous thoughts to become conscious. ex attack boss at a board meeting is denied access to his awareness
defense mechanism- denial
person simply refuses to acknowledge the existance of an external source of anxiety. ex you are not prepared for an exam but you tell yourself that its not important and there is no reason not to go to the movies tn.
defense mechanism- projection
person attributes own unacceptable impulses, motivates, or desires to other individuals. ex. the worker who repressed his destructive desires may project his anger onto his boss and claim that it is actually the boss who is hostile.
defense mechanism- rationalization
person creates a socially acceptable reason for an action that actually reflects unacceptable motives. ex a students explains away his poor grades by saying how important it is to experience the whole idea of college and that caring about grades too much would ruin it.
defense mechanism- displacement
person displaces hostility away from a dangerous object and onto a safer substitute. ex after a person takes a parking spot you wanted you later take your anger out on your roommate.
defense mechanism- intellectualization
person represses emotional reactions in favor of overly logical response to a problem. ex a women who was beaten gives a detached methodical description of the effects that such attacks may have been on victims.
defense mechanism- regression
person retreats from an upsetting conflict to an early developmental stage at which no one is expected to behave maturely or responsibly. ex. a boy who cannot cope with a mother that is rejecting hi soils his pants.
developmental stages (freud)
oral stage (0-18 months) fears that the mother that feeds and comforts them will disappear.
anal (18- 3 years)
phallic (3 to 5 years)
latency (5-12 years)
emphasize the role of the ego and consider it a more important and powerful force than freud did.
give the greatest attention to the role of the self- the unified personality.
object relations theorists
propose that people are motivated mainly by a need to have relationships with others and that severe problems in the relationships between children and their caregiver may lead to abnormal development.
all seek to uncover past traumas and the inner conflicts that have resulted from them.
psychodynamic therapies - free association
a psychodynamic technique in which the patient describes any thoughts, feelings, or images that comes to mind, even if it is unimportant.
psychodynamic therapies- therapist interpretation
resistance- an unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy, when they suddenly cannot free associate or when they act and feel toward a painful discussion.
transference- when they act and feel toward the therapist as they did or do toward important persons in their lives, especially their parents siblings, spouses.
dreams- royal road to the unconscious. they can reveal instincts needs and wishes.
psychodynamic therapies - catharsis
a reliving of the past repressed feelings, if they are to settle internal conflicts and overcome their problems
psychodynamic therapies - working through
must examine the same issues over and over in the course of many sessions, each with greater clarity.
behavioral model theorists
believe that our actions are determined largely by our experiences in life. base their explanations on the principles of learning
behavioral explains- operant conditioning
a process of learning in which behavior that leads to satisfying consequences is likely to be repeated. rewards
behavioral explains- modeling
individuals acquire responses by observing and imitating others
behavioral explains- classical conditioning
a process of learning by temporal association in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused in a person's mind and produce the same response.
treatment in which clients with phobias learn to react calmly instead of with intense fear to the objects or situations they dread.
leading behaviorist, in order to feel happy and function effectively people must develop a positive sense of self-efficacy.
cognitive model clinicans
albert ellis and aaron beck; proposed that cognitive processes are at the center of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions
abnormal functioning can result from several kinds of problems. some people may make assumptions and adopt attitudes that are disturbing.
therapy developed by aaron beck that helps people recognize and change their faulty thinking processes.
the more optimistic; believe that human beings are born with a natural tendency to be friendly.
to fulfill their potential for goodness and growth.
developed by carl rogers a warm and supportive approach that contrasted sharply with the psychodynamic techniques.
rogers humanstic theory and therapy
believes that the road to dysfunction began in infancy. need to receive positive reguard from the important people in our life.
gestalt therapy - hum
developed by fredrick perls. in which clinicans actively move clients toward self-recognition and self- acceptance by using techniques such as role play and self discovery exercises.
existential therapy- hum
encourages clients to accept responsibility for their lives and to live with gender meaning and value.
sociocultural model- family systems theory
a theory that views the family as a system of interacting parts whose interactions exhibit consistent patterns and unstated rules.
a group of people with similar problems meet together with a therapist to work on the problems.
a group made up with people with similar problems who help and support one another without the direct leadership
a therapist meets with all the members of a family and helps them change in therapeutic ways.
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