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Introducing the New Testament, 2nd ed. (ch. 3): The New Testament Writings
Terms in this set (37)
"one who is sent" (apostolos); used for certain leaders among the earliest followers of Jesus, especially the twelve disciples and Paul.
having to do with the earliest followers of Jesus and/or the apostle Paul; apostolic writings are ones produced by people who knew Jesus or Paul (or, at least, writings that are in line with the thinking of such people).
oral or written materials that are believed to bear a close connection to Jesus, his original disciples, or the missionary Paul, or believed to be congruent with what those people taught.
the study of human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of artifacts and other physical remains.
literally, "rule" or "standard"; used by religious groups to refer to an authoritative list of books that are officially accepted as Scripture.
"general" or "universal"; in religious studies, the phrase "catholic church" refers not to the Roman Catholic Church but rather to all Christians throughout the world.
the study of how units are arranged within a particular book—order or placement, sequence, and overall structural layout.
an academic discipline that seeks to understand a culture (and its literature) by way of comparison with what is known about other cultures.
a method employed by postmodern biblical critics to demonstrate that interpretations of texts are based on subjective criteria and thus possess no intrinsic claim to legitimacy.
"one who learns" (mathētēs); used broadly for anyone who follows Jesus and more narrowly for someone who belongs to his hand-picked group of closest followers (the "twelve disciples").
the study of alterations that an author probably made to source material—additions, omissions, and other changes that reveal the author's priorities and preferences.
scholarly study of the Bible with an emphasis on the explication of texts using various academic approaches (called "exegetical methods").
an academic approach that seeks to understand texts from a feminist perspective.
an academic approach that attempts to classify literary materials by type or genre and identify the purposes for which such materials were usually intended.
General Letters (Epistles)
seven letters traditionally thought to have been written to the church "at large" rather than to specific individual congregations: James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, Jude. Also called "Catholic Letters (Epistles)."
philosophical reflection on the process of biblical interpretation, including consideration of what the goal of interpretation should be, of different ways in which biblical passages might be regarded as meaningful, and of the ways in which authority is ascribed to biblical texts.
broadly, academic study that deals with matters pertinent to the historical composition of a writing (author, date, and place of writing, intended audience, etc.); increasingly the term is used more precisely to refer to investigations concerning what can be verified as authentic historical data in accord with accepted criteria of such analysis.
a field of academic study that explores how texts are understood when they are read from particular ideological perspectives (e.g., feminist, evangelical, Jungian, Marxist).
in biblical studies, an ancient handwritten document containing a book or portion of the Bible.
an academic approach that seeks to understand texts from the perspective of Hispanic women.
an academic approach that draws on modern literary analysis to determine the effects that biblical stories are expected to have on their readers.
material passed on by word of mouth; early Christians relied on oral tradition as well as on written sources when writing the Gospels.
multiple meanings; the capacity for a text to mean different things to different people or in different contexts.
a field of academic study that seeks to read texts from the perspective of marginalized and oppressed people.
a relativistic approach to life and thought that denies absolutes and objectivity.
an academic approach that focuses on how texts might be understood by readers who engage them in different contexts.
an academic approach that tries to discern the intentions of authors by analyzing how they arranged and edited their source materials.
an academic approach that focuses on strategies employed by biblical authors to achieve particular purposes.
the sacred writings of a religion, believed to be inspired by God and viewed as authoritative for faith and practice.
Sitz im Leben
German for "setting in life"; in biblical studies, the situation in which a biblical text would have been meaningful for the early church (e.g., liturgical worship, catechetical instruction).
a person's social identity in terms of factors such as age, gender, race, nationality, social class, and marital status.
academic approaches that draw on the social sciences to analyze New Testament documents in light of phenomena that characterized the social world in which they were produced.
an academic approach that tries to identify and sometimes reconstruct materials that the biblical authors used in composing their documents.
academic study of available manuscripts that attempts to determine the most reliable reading of a document for which no original has been preserved.
in text criticism, an alternative reading of a text, supported by some manuscripts.
German for "history of influence"; an academic discipline that documents and explains how texts have been read throughout history.
an academic approach that seeks to understand texts from the perspective of African American women.
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